Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Abstracts

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Dr. Yumin Ao Cross-cultural Awareness and Solutions: A Social Perspective Taking (SPT) Module for Competence-based Training
CFL teachers from China encounter a challenge when trying to bridge large cultural gaps and may lack skills to effectively engage with the local populace, including students, teachers, parents and host-school administrators. The successful promotion of Chinese education requires the full support of a partnership with host schools and local communities. Thus, it is of crucial importance that CFL teachers use effective interpersonal technique and communication strategies in the classroom and beyond to overcome potential barriers in cross-cultural communication. However, the majority of CFL teachers from China either have had no exposure to new ideas, people and cultural situations, or had occasional but insufficient cross-cultural knowledge prior to being deployed to host schools. This paper uses Social Perspective Taking (SPT) to address these interpersonal challenges of CFL teachers. 37 CFL teachers voluntarily and anonymously participated in a recent survey regarding cross-cultural interactions and competence. The results of the survey have shown the necessity of competence-based training programs to be designed for in-service CFL teachers. The SPT module proposed in the paper allows teachers to accurately consider students, parents, host-schools’ perspectives without cultural bias and erroneous assumptions, which is the key to successfully promoting instruction of Chinese language and culture. The paper introduces the implementation of the SPT module for an in-service professional development workshop. The paper aims to: (1) contribute to escalating CFL teachers’ cultural competence locally and globally; (2) allow teachers to understand host-schools’ goals while accomplishing objectives of Chinese education; and (3) provide constructive suggestions to develop courses for in-service teacher training.
Hua Bai 浅析19世纪意大利汉语教材
19世纪意大利汉语教材研究可分为两个不同阶段,以1861年3月17日,即意大利的建国之日为切点:之前没有自己独立的国家教育体制,导致汉语教学星星点点;而国家统一造就了平和的教育环境,中国人首次授聘于意大利教育部下属机构——那不勒斯的一所东方学校,编写并出版了首批中文阅读教材,随后出版了第一本中文口语教材。从此,语法与口语并进的汉语教学模式延续至今。
Dr. Huba Bartos Contrastive phonetic analysis and laboratory methods in exploring pronunciation errors of Hungarian learners of Mandarin (co-authors: Qiuyue Ye, Nikoletta Tusor)
In this paper we demonstrate the use of contrastive analysis paired with experimental research in pinpointing key errors displayed in the speech production of Hungarian learners of Mandarin (HLM). In particular, we focus on pronunciation errors in the production of consonants and tones. The findings point to the interference effect of the Hungarian articulatory basis on the acquisition of the M consonant system. Tones, a feature entirely absent from Hungarian, is shown to pose predictable but less serious difficulties.
Contrastively comparing the consonant systems of Hungarian and Mandarin we can easily pinpoint three potential areas of difficulty for HLM:
1. The aspiration-based contrast among M obstruents is absent from H, but is often erroneously linked up with the voicing contrast present in H but absent from M.
2. There are no retroflex consonants in H., and these sounds of M will be replaced by many HLM with H dorsal postalveolar consonants, which HLM perceive as similar.
3. The M consonants with dual (alveolar + palatal) articulatory gestures: HLM almost invariably drop one of the events, and produce monogestural palatals (or apico-alveolars).
Tones: While various problems (duration, contour, range) were identifiable in the tone production of HLM, yangping and shangsheng turned out to be the most problematic tonal values, and their F0 contour and range proved to be the most significant problem areas.
A further discovery: while the variety of pronunciation errors narrows with the time of learning, the most characteristic error types fossilize heavily (i.e., become a permanent feature of the speech of the learner, rather than an error with random manifestation), and turn into a problem very difficult to correct and remedy later.
Joël Bellassen Keynote speech 欧洲汉语教学学科建设
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Mr. Sven Bosch Chinese language learning and teaching in Dutch-speaking universities: contexts and challenges
In this presentation, we aim to offer an analytical sketch of the contexts and challenges of Chinese language learning and teaching (CLLT) in Dutch-speaking universities, focusing on “hogescholen”: universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands and Flemish Belgium. We locate CLLT in important and transitional contexts. CLLT has been an integral part of the long and rich disciplinary tradition of Sinology and China Studies in Dutch-speaking universities, notably in Leiden (NL) and Leuven (BE) where CLLT serves as an important means to access and advance knowledge about China/Chinese as a distinct geographic, cultural and racial/ethnic entity. Like in some other European higher education, CLLT falls within the paradigm of Regional Studies and the training of scientific intellectuals par excellence, with a particular perception on the function and pedagogy of (Chinese) language. Recently CLLT began to emerge as a new subject in “hogescholen”, as an extension and supplement to traditional university education and, more, as a response to the need to provide highly trained professional workers with practical skills and knowledge (notably multilingual intercultural business communication) that are relevant and applicable to contemporary socioeconomic contexts. The “applied” nature and the “bestaansrecht” (the right of existence) required of CLLT provision by educational policies and realities places CLLT in a new and challenging context. This calls for twofold re-contextualization of CLLT: on the one hand, a renewed understanding of China and Chinese in a globalizing world and, on the other hand, an up-to-date pedagogical toolkit to adjust and deliver the CLLT curriculum as applied education. Both require a paradigmatic shift in terms of the “social turn” of CLLT in which communicative skills need to be placed at the heart of its provision. We illustrate educational challenges posed by this shift in concrete ways, using our own hogeschool as an example. We reflect on the operational potentials and constraints of moving into a communication-oriented curriculum from the perspectives of the teachers and the students. In a context of applied education, both teachers and students are required to adapt to new roles in an environment where the Chinese curriculum is more and more part of a larger integrated whole of formerly parallel learning lines.
Mr. Weihao Cai 汉语慕课教学模式研究
]本研究采用个案研究方法,通过课堂观察和访谈法,对北京某高校开设汉语慕课的教学目标、教学方法、教学内容、时长和教学效果等进行深入研究,并在此基础上提出汉语慕课的五个特点:第一,汉语慕课的影响力和学习者规模具有很大提升空间;第二,教学内容和方法应以学生汉语水平和交际需求为中心;第三,同伴互评和分享学习成果是提高汉语慕课学习者学习效果的有效途径;第四,汉语慕课教学须循序渐进;第五,慕课能从教育理念、知识、技能和自我效能感等多方面促进教师专业发展。同时,提出汉语慕课亟待解决的几个问题,包括:如何提高汉语慕课教学交际性和互动性;如何有效、及时地反馈学生提出的问题;以及加强人力和物力的支持与保障等。
Ms. Miriam Castorina Works of grammar from the Chinese College at Naples in the 19th century: a descriptive analysis
Two years before the establishment of the first academic teaching of Chinese language at the Collège de France (1814) entrusted to Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788-1832), the Napoleonic government set in Naples transformed the almost one-century old “Chinese College” into a sort of high school, naming it Special school of Chinese. Up to this time and despite the intention of the founder Matteo Ripa (1682-1746), the teaching and learning of the Chinese language had been very scanty and fragmentary. Even though the British government resolved to ask Naples for two pupils to serve as interpreters for Lord Macartney’s Embassy (1792), Chinese language teaching, however, was not continual nor systematic. Thus, during the French decade (1806-1815), the “Special school of Chinese” needed to build a much more organic teaching method and, in order to do so, it was necessary to compile some teaching material.
The aim of the paper is to illustrate and describe in detail two works of Chinese grammar written to respond to this need respectively entitled De Lingua Sinensi (anonymous) and Zhongguo zi. Gramatica chinese fatta per uso della scuola speciale istallata nel Collegio de’ Chinesi in Napoli da Gennaro Filomeno Maria Terres allievo della suddetta scuola, 1813 (Chinese grammar for use at the special school of the Chinese College in Naples by Gennaro Filomeno Maria Terres, pupil of the above-mentioned school). These two works of grammar are quoted in some works but they have never been studied or described. The paper therefore aims to illustrate them, to put forward some hypotheses on the author of De Lingua Sinensi based on textual evidence and will trace a link that connects Italian Chinese language teaching to French Sinology.
Ms. Hui Chen 启发学生用自己的智慧记忆汉字
汉语和西方语言的一个重要区别是汉语用符号而不是字母来记录语言,所以汉字的记忆对欧洲学生来讲是非常困难的。许多对汉语感兴趣的人学习一段时间后会知难而退。所以寻找一种有效且有趣的汉字记忆方法对提高学生的学习兴趣和帮助学生学习汉语是极其重要的。
本人在教学实践中启发学生展开现象的翅膀,用他们自己的思维和方法诠释汉字,记忆汉字,取得了很好的效果。本报告将以生动具体的例子介绍这一方法。比如学生有多种方法记忆王字:1. 一+一等于王;2.土地上一人统治,此人就是王;3. 王字像国王头上戴的皇冠;4. 老虎头上的纹饰像王字;5. 王字的上横为天,下横为地,中间一横为人,加一竖就成了一统天下的王。另外,王加一点为玉。王有玉玺有边界即成国。塞纳河(水)畔有埃菲尔铁塔(去)就是法国。几分钟就学会了法国的写法。
Congyun 丛耘 Chen 陈 标题:华文教育中教室文化功能的解读(中文)
由于华文教育的特殊性,如何通过教室的环境来传递中国古老的文化,可从以下几方面去解读:一、团结凝聚功能。华裔学生来自于各个国家,语言不同、社会习俗不同,要想成为有凝聚力的先进集体。一个良好的教室环境和氛围布置不可缺少。二、教育导向功能。古代教室文化的教育导向功能摆在首要位置,朱熹题在白鹿洞书院的“忠、孝、廉、节”就是典型的以教育导向为主的教室标语。三、规范警示功能。为了教育学生,教室里的布置时时提醒每一位学生要为自己的行为负责,自律、自信、自强。四、美育调适功能。窗明几净的教室,置身于其中会令人感到心胸舒畅;典雅大方的布置,置身于其中会令人恬静踏实;热情奔放的装饰,又会让人生机勃勃。五、文化传承传播功能。人类文化史证明,弘扬中华优秀文化,是对人类文化的重大贡献。教室文化也正发挥着它的独特的功能。
Ms. Zhang Dan 用目的语进行课堂教学:重要性与可行性
从外语教学法上讲,使用目的语教学至少有助于学生尽快尽早地养成用目的语思维的习惯,逐渐排除母语负迁移的影响,从而提高目的语使用的准确性和得体性,为最终获得良好的语言和文化交际能力奠定坚实的基础。本文从用目的语教学符合语言习得的普遍规律的角度论述了适度足量的可理解的目的语输入是目的语习得的重要条件和主要供给源;分析了在初级汉语课堂上使用目的语教学的可行性;提出了用目的语进行课堂教学的原则和方法。
Dr. Junling Ding Based on Vocabulary Size of Chinese in Steps and It’s Corresponding Chinese Proficiency 基于词汇量表的《步步高中文》与语言水平等级
词汇是语言的基础,词汇量被认为是衡量语言水平的一个重要指标。本文采用计算机检索辅以人工筛选和校对,对伦敦华语教学出版社出版的三册《步步高中文》中的词汇与HSK六个级别总词汇量进行重合率统计和分析,基于词汇量,对《步步高中文》与HSK等级进行了对应。

《步步高中文》主要应用于大学汉语学习者,对《步步高中文》与GCSE词汇大纲重合率的统计,指出GCSE的对应梯级应该是《步步高中文》第三册。

随着欧洲汉语教学的发展,本文也对《步步高中文》的词汇与“欧洲汉语能力基准项目”(EBCL)提供的词表进行了重合率统计。

虽教材的选择并不以语言测试的词汇大纲为依据,但确定教材词汇量与汉语水平等级的对应关系,对学生学习时长、班级选择、学习信心、成绩评估、水平测试具有重要的参照意义。
Dr. Frine Beba Favaloro The teaching of Chinese culture in Italian secondary school. Challenges and opportunities.
Keywords:
Chinese language and culture teaching, knowledge models, discipline building stakeholders

Abstract:
As an academic subject, Chinese language teaching already had quite a long tradition in Italy. It was 1732 when the catholic Collegio de’ Cinesi officially opened a course of Chinese language, whereas the first academic chair of Far Eastern Languages was established in 1864 at the Institute of Higher Studies of Florence. Since then, the subject has gradually developed, until recent years, when it has entered a rapid development, thanks to an exponential increase in the number of learners and the introduction of the subject of Chinese language and culture as a school discipline at the secondary-education level, starting from 2003.
Following this development, the scientific world has consequently undertaken a process of rethinking the discipline, which is being carried out in cooperation with the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. A crucial contribution to this process comes from the production of reference materials, like language textbooks, and of documents aimed at institutional and scientific mediation, like the Syllabus for the Chinese language, edited in September 2016.
Based on the communicative approach, the Syllabus is targeted to Italian learners at the secondary education level. It presents competence descriptors, teaching themes, and lexicon inspired both by the European and the Chinese-relevant reference documents. The document also includes a section presenting culture content, scanned according to school years.
The culture section closely follows the national guidelines (“Indicazioni nazionali”), which also recommend analysis and confrontation activities that students can constantly carry out on texts and content. This last aspect is consistent in general with the most common approach to Chinese culture teaching in Italy that we noted both at the level of reference materials used in teachers’ lesson planning and at the level of classroom practice: an approach based on a model of knowledge transmission known as “knowledge collection” and implemented through the traditional teacher-centered lesson where there is little space for active learning and mobilization of cultural representation.
This shows that we are still far from developing that intercultural competence which is nevertheless considered a fundamental objective in official references documents for foreign language and culture teaching, both at the national and European level. Far from being an obstacle, this shortcoming in the development of the intercultural aspect in Chinese culture teaching is an opportunity to contribute not only to the ongoing renewal and improvement of the discipline of Chinese language and culture teaching in Italy, but also to foreign culture teaching which is overlooked and underestimated in foreign language and culture teaching in a general way.


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Il sillabo della lingua cinese per le scuole secondarie di II grado. Accessed November 29, 2016. http:// http://hubmiur.pubblica.istruzione.it/web/istruzione/dettaglio-news/-/dettaglioNews/viewDettaglio/40811/11210
Indicazioni nazionali riguardanti gli obiettivi specifici di apprendimento concernenti le attività e gli insegnamenti compresi nei piani degli studi previsti per i percorsi liceali di cui all’articolo 10, comma 3, del decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 15 marzo 2010, n. 89, in relazione all’articolo 2, commi 1 e 3, del medesimo regolamento. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.indire.it/lucabas/lkmw_file/licei2010/indicazioni_nuovo_impaginato/_decreto_indicazioni_nazionali.pdf.
Masini, Federico, Tongbing Zhang, Gloria Gabbianelli, and Rui Wang. Women shuo Hanyu, 我们说汉语, Parliamo cinese. Rome: Hoepli, 2016.
Wang, Yan. “Les compétences culturelles et interculturelles dans l’enseignement du chinois par rapport au contexte secondaire français.” PhD diss., Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, to be discussed in 2017.
Ms. Claudia Friedrich -- Will be decided during the next days! --
-- Will be given during the next days after the final decision! --
Ms. Junji Gong 现代教育科技与汉语亲属称谓语教学
外语学习中存在着各种学习者很难逾越的“阻力区”(zone de résistance)。有些是语言本身的,有些则是思维与文化上的,而后者的难度远非可与前者相提并论。对于西方学习者来说,由于汉语是一种远距型语言,他们在学习汉语过程中自然会遇到诸多障碍。汉语的亲属称谓语堪称汉语学习中最高层级的“阻力区”。汉语亲属称谓语属于“苏丹制”,而法语亲属称谓语则属于“爱斯基摩制”,前者词汇的丰富与后者相对的贫乏形成二者间严重的不对等性。再者,汉语中拟亲属称谓语的大量使用,使得学习的难度系数再次升级。笔者对部分法国汉语专业学生掌握汉语亲属称谓语情况调查的结果进一步证明汉语亲属称谓语是汉语学习者的一个“阻力区”。本文运用以计算机技术为基础的现代化多媒体教育手段来减少法国汉语学习者学习汉语亲属称谓语所遭遇到的各种障碍,以有效地促进亲属称谓语的教学,从而使其概念内在化。
Ms. Jiaqi Guo Flipped the Language Classroom with Technology
Although instructed language learning has a history of thousands of years of real life practice it is a comparatively young field of academic research (Ellis, 2012). As is the case for many language teachers in contemporary education settings, many Chinese language teachers, including those who teach a degree course or language classes in a higher education environment, are confronted by students’ slow progress and modest learning outcomes. Limited contact hours, unmotivated students and the lack of an immersive linguistic environment may all, to various degrees, contribute to this unsatisfactory situation.
Undoubtedly, language learning requires time and effort. What can be done to optimise in-classroom and out-classroom learning? Flipped classroom is a pedagogical solution with a technology component such as language learning apps, Youtube videos, Moodle and online courses such as MOOC that challenge the traditional notion of the classroom that is dominated by imparting grammar and tight control by the teacher. Instead of spending time reviewing new vocabulary and grammar necessary for that day's lesson then proceeding to exercises, flipping the learning requires students to get familiar with the learning materials prior to the class with carefully designed activities with sufficient and assessable feedback and support. By doing so, it personalises the students’ learning experience and affords more classroom time for in-class activities that focus on higher level cognitive activities.
This presentation will invite discussion regarding how various technologies can be used to serve teachers' pedagogical goals and to maximise learning outcomes. Furthermore, the broader role of language teachers in students' language learning journeies in the 21st century, where teachers are no longer the sole resource of knowledge, will also be discussed.
Dr. Lixia Guo 通过比较学习词汇和语法 ——英国来华传教士鲍康宁的教学理念
鲍康宁的《英华合璧》(1878)是一部优秀的汉语教材,出版后50年内修订和再版达到14版,包含着鲍康宁重要的汉语教学理念,其中通过比较学习的思路尤为突出,既包括词语和语法的对比,也包括语用的对比。
词语的比较既包括汉英对比,如Old与“老/旧”,也包括汉语近义词的对比,如帮忙/帮补/帮助。
语法方面对量词、结果补语等予以了充分的重视,也对语法范畴如比较、假设等进行了对比,同时还比较了近义虚词,如“才/就”等。语用方面比较了称呼法、姓名和年龄的异同等。
鲍康宁的《英华合璧》是针对西方人的汉语教材,套用西方语法体系的痕迹非常明显,但是其体系对西方人来说“自然且简便”,至今仍有较高的借鉴价值。
Dr. Zhiyan Guo Teaching Chinese as a third language in a British university: issues and problems
With the increasing awareness of the importance of teaching Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL), more and more higher education institutions in the UK developed their curricula to include Chinese in the University-wide Language Programme. Although some universities have offered Degrees in Chinese Studies where students learn the language from scratch, most universities tend to take very cautious steps towards the large-scale incorporation of Chinese into the mainstream curriculum. One of these steps are the creation of degree courses with Chinese as a minor language, that is, the component of Chinese takes up 25% of the whole degree programme, in addition to the other two European languages as their majors. The current study describes the course structure of the programme titled Bachelor of Arts in Modern Languages (BAML) that has been offered for the past three years in a British university, with the focus on how Chinese has been taught and how well the candidates have developed their language skills in speaking, listening, reading and writing. It discusses the issues and problems that the students have had in learning three foreign languages at the same time, with the two of them being from Ab initio, such as the arrangement in their Year of Study Abroad, the balance between language and culture components of the programme and the challenges students face in coping the intensive pace of learning Chinese as their third foreign language. The study also suggests that there are a lot yet to be done in the development of Chinese as a discipline in the UK and Europe in terms of curriculum design, quality assurance, effective teaching and assessment methods as well as the continual professional development of the teachers in order to be confident in both course delivery and assessment design.
Dr. Shih-chang Hsin 漢語聽力寬度之教學概念及網上聽力資源建置
漢語聽力寬度之教學概念及網上聽力資源建置
The development of internet teaching resource based on the concept of Chinese Listening broadness
Abstract:
漢語因地域及社會環境不同而有許多區域的差異,最明顯是在口音方面,例如中國大陸各方言區或省區的普通話、台灣國語、新加坡華語、馬來西亞華語、港澳普通話等等。外國人士在課堂上所學習的都是標準的漢語發音及聽力,但在真實的漢語環境中,絕大多數華人所講的國語/普通話或多或少都帶有受方言影響的口音,如何讓漢語學習者能聽懂適應這些不同的口音,提高與各地華人的溝通理解能力,是漢語語聽力教學亟待研究的課題。

所謂的寬廣度是指對於不同音色、口音、腔調之聽力理解能力。本研究即基於此概念,建置了華語多元口音聽力網站,錄製了數百筆具有不同主題的各類普通話的口音,按區域分類並加上語言地圖及該地漢語特徵及口語文稿,作為中高級聽力教學之自學及課堂教學資源,可供歐洲地區的教師運用。研究者並以此網站進行聽力教學測試及試驗,證實即使是高級程度的學生面臨到不同口音時仍有聽力上的困擾,但經過密集上網聆聽的教學安排後,即能逐漸適應。

Keywords: 漢語聽力、口音、聽力寬度、網上資源
Dr. Zhenyin 怡貞 Hsu 許 針對歐洲語言共同參考框架的語言教學任務及作用:談國際學校古漢語任務教學設計與成效
根據歐洲語言共同參考框架中提出:定義任務的性質可以很多樣化,並需要語言活動的介入。另外,交際也是任務的重要組成部分。因此, 將任務或活動按類型分配,則成為眾多教學大綱、教材、課堂學習經歷和課堂測驗的中心單元。學習者依能力配合任務設計的條件和限制,以積極的態度參加並完成設定的交際任務,透過學習目的語進行理解與交流,達到目的語學習的功效。本論文研究者憑藉專業背景,任教於國際學校並從事古漢語課程的規劃與教學設計。為因應學生高中畢業後即將前往歐洲繼續升學的前提下,漢語課程的規劃須符合歐洲語言共同參考框架,針對語言教學任務的設計及其作用,研究者提出以古漢語任務教學設計為研究主題,當任務實施時,學習者的能力考量、任務設計的條件和限制,以及任務實施的策略,展開行動研究。之後反思實施成果,就任務教學設計的難點,以認知、情感和語言因素三方面,尋求最佳化的古漢語任務教學設計。預期學習者透過設計的任務型語言學習,充分達成目的語學習成效。研究者將提供實際的任務教學範例,透過實例的設計,檢視是否符合歐洲語言共同參考框架下語言教學任務的指標,所得成果供日後研究之參考。
Dr. Keiko Ibushi 汉语教学的几个新尝试
(我和朱风老师联名投稿)

本人在日本大学教学汉语已有20个年头了。在这20年中,随着时代的更新及学生素质的变化,汉语课本及汉语教学方法有了很大的变化。本论文主要想介绍一下本人在汉语教学中的几个新尝试以及日本的汉语教学现状。
日本大学中,除了一小部分汉语专业的学生以外,大部分的学生均选择汉语作为第2外语,而且动机在于拿学分。对于这些学生,我们需要在教材和教学方法上下功夫,让他们从被动学习转向积极主动学习。我想在此介绍几种新的尝试。
1.采用适合年轻人的汉语教材,包括漫画教材,音乐教材。
2.利用ICT(Information and Communication Technology)技术,诸如Quizlet,YouTube,Pentel等应用软件,让汉语学习环境接近年轻学生的日常生活,摒弃枯燥乏味,增添轻松愉快。
3.营造多元化语言环境。不仅仅是单纯的日语-汉语,或汉语-日语学习,而是英语,汉语,日语等多种语言同时使用,让学生体验到国际化的汉语。
总之,本人希望通过具体介绍几个目前在日本汉语教学中的新尝试,与欧洲的同仁们做一些互动交流。
Fang Jia 破解“难”题,彰显汉语魅力
“汉语难学”命题产生的的历史根源、语言学分析及教学对策。
Mr. Lu Jianming 有关汉语教学学科建设的几个问题 Some Problems in the Disciplinary Construction of TCSOL
暂缺 To be vacant
Ms. Peipei Jin 初级汉语学习型辞书学习功能分析 ——面向英语为母语的汉语学习者
新中国成立以来,对外汉语教学作为一项事业已经走过六十多个春秋。伴随孔子学院在海外的建立,中国对外汉语教学的格局开始从以国内教学为主向到以海外汉语教学为主的转变,在这一大背景下,汉语教师培养方法、汉语教材编写取向及汉语教学方法研究都随之发生了改变。但是,作为汉语国际推广事业的排头兵(郑定欧,2008)以及汉语学习过程中的重要工具,汉语学习型辞书在编纂理念和更新速度等方面却与这一大背景有些格格不入,相应的研究与前面所说的“三教”相比也稍显滞后。

自1976年北京语言学院首次编纂了供外国人学习汉语使用的《汉英小词典》起,我们发现,这四十年来,大陆已出版的汉语学习型辞书的释义语言多为汉语,适用对象多为高级汉语水平学习者,即便是面向初级汉语水平的词典也难度偏大,而且真正具有“语别化”特色的辞书少之又少。这种“难懂、难用、难查”又没针对性的工具书自然很难受到学习者(尤其是非目的语环境下的学习者)的欢迎。

我们认为,在海外汉语教学蓬勃发展的今天,编纂“低起点”、“语别化”、“本土化”的汉语学习型辞书已势在必行。为此,我们以面向英语为母语的初级汉语学习型辞书为例,以英美、港台以及大陆优秀学者已出版的这类辞书为研究对象,对初级汉语学习型辞书在适应学习者学习环境、符合学习者认知规律以及满足学习者学习需求的前提下,如何呈现出“易懂、易用、易查”的学习功能进行了探讨。
Ms. Ma Jing 欧洲中小学生适用的汉语教学法研究
本文介绍了在中匈双语学校任教的汉语教师情况和学生学习汉语的基本情况,以及中文教材的使用情况。并且以初、中级汉语水平的学生为教学研究对象,结合第二语言学的教学理论和教学经历,具体阐释了16种针对于欧洲中小学生适用的汉语教学方法。
随着中国经济的飞速发展,世界“汉语热”呈现出低龄化特征,针对各国中小学汉语教学法的研究也逐渐增多,但目前的研究对象大多来自亚洲。欧洲的中小学生语言环境单一、个性更为活泼好动,思维方式和学习特点都有别于亚洲学生。因此,适用于西式教育背景下的中小学生汉语教学方法,构成了国际汉语教学研究的必要性。
Ms. Wang Jingdan 成语与中国文化的课程设计
汉语成语是中华民族传统文化的瑰宝与结晶,在汉语的词汇系统里扮演着十分重要的角色,也一直是第二语言学习者面临的难点之一。在对外汉语教学中,成语教学及相关研究一直未曾受到足够重视,专门的成语教材更是寥寥无几。关于成语与中国文化课程探讨者也比较少。本文试图从成语教学对于扩大学生词汇量,提高汉语理解和表达能力,加深文化理解等方面的意义出发,对《成语与中国文化》课程的内容、教学理念、教学方法、教学策略、文化因素的设计等方面进行深入的考察分析,探讨其对成语教学的作用。
Ms. Lai Jingqing 谈汉字文化传播在汉语国际推广中的意义与作用----兼论中级汉语教学汉字课程设置问题
汉语国际推广已经作为国家外交战略的一个重要的组成部分。汉语国际推广的发展目标是实现六大转变,转变之一就是从对外汉语教学向全方位的汉语国际推广转变,因此对外汉语教学与汉语国际教育推广是一个有机的整体。笔者认为在汉语国际推广中应该充分发挥汉字教学的优势,突破汉字难认、难写、难记的瓶颈,利用汉字教学传播和推广富有中国魅力的文化,让世界各国人民接受并认同这种文化,共同分享中国文化中灿烂的瑰宝。本文在论述汉字教学在汉语国际推广中的意义和作用的同时,兼论中级汉语教学中汉字课程设置问题。通过对中级汉语水平学生的问卷调查与分析说明汉字课程设置的必要性和紧迫性,并对中级汉语教学中汉字课程设置做具体描述。
Mr. Eoin Kestell Use of Modern technology in Teaching Chinese
Although technology has become embedded in our everyday lives, researchers and practitioners are constantly striving to find ways to incorporate technology in education, particularly in the field of language acquisition. The development of technology is reflected by a progressive proliferation of web resources and multimedia software for language teaching and learning, particularly computer-assisted language learning (CALL), which has become a very significant research area within applied linguistics.
This paper addresses a debate that has become central to recent developments regarding CALL: on the one hand, many academics have argued that individuals should be encouraged to engage in activities using modern technology in the target language as it provides learners with an opportunity to obtain rich input and output in the target language; on the other hand, others have expressed concern that technology may confine individuals to only participating within their existing networks and reduce immersion time spent in the target language and culture.
Thus, this paper seeks to address the usefulness of CALL in language acquisition through two case studies of twelve Year 4 and ten Year 1 students who were part of a Chinese language degree program in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). The core focus of this paper is to explore learners’ attitudes and beliefs towards the effect that using technology had on their written production skills. Data on beliefs and attitudes were collected through online surveys. Throughout the year, students were to submit assignments on a regular basis through either e-mail or WeChat. Results revealed that students written production skills improved significantly over the year. Furthermore, students indicated that producing written text using technology helped to facilitate their production at a considerably faster rate, increasing both confidence and motivation. Through a survey requesting students’ experience of acquiring knowledge through these digital resources and implementing it through CALL-facilitated written and oral communication, this paper ultimately aims to demonstrate that modern technology can be a useful tool for second language learners of Chinese.
Dr. Liliya Kholkina Secondary school textbook of Chinese for usage outside of China
Every country has its own standards for foreign language teaching. In Russia these standards are set by Russian Federal educational standard. General State Exam (OGE) and Unified State Exam (EGE) in Chinese which are now being tested will also contribute to unification of standards and requirements to language skills of graduates.
Teaching materials play a very important role in education process. Recently, various textbooks from China became available, which provides teachers with colorful multi-media teaching materials. But most of them are designed for teaching Chinese in the Chinese language environment and usually by native speakers, and for that reason lack many necessary explanations. Even if translated to local languages, they don’t fit to local realities and don’t comply with local educational standards. Typological difference between Chinese and Indo-European languages is too big to be able to rely only on communicative methods, and some grammar points and communicative strategies have to be explicitly clarified. Moreover, learners with different mother tongues tend to have different types of difficulties when learning Chinese. We believe that to satisfy all these needs, it is necessary to develop local teaching materials in collaboration with local and Chinese specialists.
As example this paper uses a series of Chinese textbooks for 5th to 9th grade secondary school pupils that we have developed, which now is in process of accreditation by the Russian Ministry of Education. It contains a textbook, a workbook, teachers’ book with guidelines, keys and tests and electronic version for each grade. This series of textbooks introduces many facts about Russia and China in Chinese (geography, history, literature, music, cinema, national holidays etc.) and makes comparisons between Russian and Chinese culture and traditions. It effectively uses Chinese and Russian in tasks and explanations and develops communicative skills through special projects, surveys, discussions and descriptions of charts and graphs with the data suitable and interesting for the secondary school pupils. The paper focuses on the main features for a school textbook of Chinese for usage outside of China.
Dr. Elena Kolpachkova No Books, No Problem: Teaching Grammar Theory Without a Textbook
Chinese Grammar is one of the most difficult aspects of language to teach well. A typical university curriculum includes three kinds of lessons (Reading, Listening and Oral Communication), at low levels students can obtain explicit grammar knowledge through some practical Grammar lessons, with teachers focusing on grammar as a set of forms and rules of usage and then drilling students on them. After 2 years of studing usually they are led to be exposed to natural Chinese as an exchange programs student and have an intensive language course in China that is a big help in developing conversational fluency. Here they also absorb grammar rules to some extent as they hear, read, and use the language in communication activities. But students still lack an active understanding of what grammar is and how it works in the language they already know.
Grammar theory taught in the 3rd year is supposed to give them overt grammar instructions and explanations from a largescale typological perspectives that can help students acquire the language more efficiently. The contents of the practical grammar textbooks for lower proficiency levels include explanations of structures, parts of speech, particles, etc. They are accompanied by activities such as fill-in-the-blank exercises, rewriting, and translation drills. At an advanced level the grammar lessons (and therefore textbooks) actually include only translations of literary passages from the Chinese language into the native language, drilling vocabulary words and writing compositions. In Russia no textbook on Chinese grammar can give a satisfactory theoretical support for students. All existing Chinese grammar books in Russian are either outdated or lacking a theoretical framework. Grammar textbooks in Chinese can facilitate the task, but they are still not available countrywide.
So it’s quite a challenge for Chinese language teachers in Russia to make use of up-to-date theories and theoretical frameworks and give easy-to-understand explanations and sufficient language examples to students on Grammar lessons. Considering that many digital resources available probably can soon make textbooks obsolete, to accomplish defined teaching tasks I summarized my first-hand experience as a Grammar instructor and now offer students a useful digitized Chinese Grammar course, a complex, typologically oriented one built on recent linguistics studies with illustrative materials from Chinese scholars and linguisitic corpora.
Dr. Anett Kozjek-Gulyás The problems posed by CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) in the Chinese language Matura exam in Hungarian secondary schools.
The demand for learning Chinese has grown as economic and cultural relationships has improved. This is shown by the increase in the number of students learning Chinese as a foreign language and the number of institutions supporting that. This has had a positive impact on the development of the professional background of Chinese language teaching. Thanks to the language teaching strategy of the government, students can choose Chinese as the first option for a foreign language in secondary schools.
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages was published in English in 2001 and then in Hungarian in 2002. It provides a foundation for the development of foreign language curriculums, examinations and textbooks. The level descriptions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) have received a lot of criticism since it is the most difficult to apply them to the Chinese language. The description of the grammatical structures and communicative purposes have made the level description specifically developed for Chinese more detailed and more specific.
The presentation highlights the difficulties posed by the requirements of CEFR for Chinese language examinations through the specific components and tasks of the Chinese language Matura examination – difficulties that are very difficult to surmount owing to the peculiar characteristics of the Chinese language.
Ms. Krystyna Krajewska The Development of a Professional Chinese Language Education Package for Primary Schools in Wales Chinese Visual Learning (CVL) Project Case Study
The Development of a Professional Chinese Language Education Package for Primary Schools in Wales
Chinese Visual Learning (CVL) Project Case Study

Krystyna Krajewska
University of Wales Trinity Saint David
Lianyi Song
SOAS, University of London

Key words: Chinese, Visual Learning, Local Teacher Training

This paper provides a case study of the Chinese Visual Learning (CVL) project developed through the Confucius Institute at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David (UWTSD), and the use of this method in developing a TCFL teaching training program in Wales. Funded by the Chinese Government agency, Hanban, this project is composed of three stages: designing the teaching materials to meet the educational ethos of teaching and learning in Wales; training non-native, local MFL teachers to teach Chinese, and the final stage of cognitive and metalinguistic research into the CVL methodology. This project presents the opportunity to create a stable, continuous and sustainable learning environment for Chinese language acquisition in Wales starting with pupils at Key Stage 2 (KS2, years 3-4, ages around 7-9).
This conference paper focuses on the first phase of designing CVL teaching material. It includes the development of Welsh and English language versions of the teaching materials and classroom resources through collaboration with experts in Modern Foreign Languages within the home institute as well as with specialists in TCFL.
There are two parts to this paper:
• In the first section, the project leader KRAJEWSKA Krystyna (UWTSD) will introduce the initial concept and the follow the development of the CVL project in detail. The CVL approach enables learners to gain ground rapidly through the use of colour and shape coding. The case study demonstrates how the Confucius Institute at UWTSD has collaborated with UWTSD’s specialist Welsh language publisher, and specialists in TCFL across different research and academic disciplinary subjects. The experts have together contributed to the design of the CVL teaching materials with both teacher training and learners’ needs in mind.
• In the second section, Dr. SONG Lianyi (SOAS) will examine the role of CEFR in shaping the design of the syllabus and the teaching materials. This an example of best practice in co-working among experts in TCFL across the UK in order to deliver a programme of the highest standard.
Ms. Yuliya Kuznetsova The four year system of Chinese teaching in Institute of Asian and African Studies (IAAS) of Moscow State University
Institute of Asian and African Studies (IAAS) of Moscow State University along with the Oriental Faculty of St. Petersburg State University are the two main academic centers in Russia focusing on a wide scope of oriental studies. Both of them have a long tradition dating back to the mid of the ХIХth century when the reaserch techniques and language teaching foundation was laid.
IAAS (established in 1972) – one of the higher educational establishment of Oriental studies in Russia – has gradually developed its own approach to students training in the required field, striking a balance between maintaining a sufficient emphasis on academic research and giving students practical tools to enter the world of an everyday conversational language.
The department of Chinese philological studies being the largest structural unit in IAAS welcomed new changes when Moscow State University entered the Bologna Process, the key point of the paper is to present the 4 year bachelor system in terms of Chinese language teaching, while here in the abstract the main idea of every academic year is outlined briefly.
The concept of “Chinese made easy” though is duly respected but not implemented at the department, the strategy of individual time and personal effort investment is at the core of the system. With 16 hours of Chinese lessons a week and two teachers – Russian and Chinese in close cooperation (this cooperation pattern is preserved until the 4th grade) – the effect of the language immersion is achieved. An analytical approach is in favour when grammar rules, syntactic structures are brought out and reinforced mostly through Russian/Chinese translation exercises throughout the first year.
The need to accelerate teaching Chinese process makes teachers put the language in a wider realm of cultural space. The 2nd year brings to light a vast amount of reading materials concerning Chinese culture and History (the main subjects are Translation techniques and Conversational Chinese making up 14 hours a week) and in terms of vocabulary idiomatic expressions are put into the foreground. This approach enables IAAS students to successfully take HSK 4 exams in the middle of the 2nd year.
The 3d and 4th grades (12 hours each) are designed to make students get acquainted with mass media rhetoric represented in Chinese news (for this purpose internet resources and print publications are used) and in general to make them feel at home linguistically in discussing socio-political topics. Bilingual translation still remains the focal point at this stage. Chinese and Russian teachers both work hand in hand to train linguistic intuition and analytical skills in students.
Ms. Alexandra Lebedeva An educator’s approach towards learners’ motivation: qualifications, challenges and prospects
Within the last decade, the amount of Chinese language learners in Europe has rapidly increased. As for Russia in order to fulfill the expectations of enrollees and students most of the educational institutions are eager to include Chinese into their curricula. At some regions of Russia Chinese language teaching starts at primary school, Chinese class as an elective course gradually becomes a compulsory course. Next year for the first time will be held the Unified State Exam on Mandarin Chinese at secondary schools. Nowadays teaching of Chinese exceeds the scope of classical Chinese studies, new courses and textbooks are to be created. In terms of educational process Confucius Institute plays a pivotal role, especially for the regions where Chinese has never been taught previously. Both learners and educators pay more attention to preparation for the Chinese Proficiency Test HSK, as soon as it becomes a common requirement for further career. A learner’s motivation is frequently closely connected to his activity, e.g. implementation of the “China Friendly” Program means an elementary Chinese skill for the employees to remain employed. As for educators new demands create new challenges, e.g. modifying of learning vocabulary according to the learners’ needs etc. Thus there are some issues for consideration. What should an educator provide for the learners? What kind of qualification he should possess? How can he be qualified? How can he help learners’ motivation? How to avoid routine and seek for inspiration?
Dr. Min Li 区域本土汉语教师培训模式探索
区域本土教师培训是带动区域汉语教学逐步提升的重要方式。本文以“中东欧本土汉语教师培训中心”五期培训为分析材料,通过对培训教师特点、培训需求及培训反馈等方面的定性及定量分析,对适合本地区汉语教学需要的培训模式进行归纳,为该类培训提供理论积累。



关键词:中东欧,本土汉语教师,培训,培训模式
Ms. Wanting Li 民国时期来华欧洲人的汉语研究与教学活动
一个成熟的学科一般都由理论和历史两部分构成, 前者确定学科的基本范畴,后者梳理学科形成的过程。一个没有自己学术史的学科肯定不是一个完整的学科。欧洲汉语教学有着悠久的历史,既包括来华欧洲传教士、外交官等汉语教学研究的历史,也包括欧洲本土汉语教学的历史。目前学界关于这些历史的研究比较零散,缺乏整体性,尤其是在中国进行的汉语教学活动,为欧洲本土汉语学习储备了师资及教学力量,是欧洲汉语教学史中很重要的一部分,极易被忽略。本文主要从汉语教学的角度梳理民国时期来华欧洲人的汉语研究、教材编写、办学培训等活动,以使我们对这一时期欧洲汉语教学有一个初步的认识,以期对学科史进行补充,使学科建设更加完善。
Dr. Ying Li 意大利大学中的商务汉语教学 —商务汉语教材,专业设置及商务汉语教学实践
近年来,在意大利对于掌握商务汉语人才的需求与日俱增。针对这种需求,出现了在意大利本土编写的商务汉语教材; 在意大利的一些大学中,也开设了商务汉语课程。
本文重点探讨两本在意大利编写、出版的商务汉语教材---《实用经贸汉语口语(Business in Cina)》和《说汉语,谈生意(Cinese &affari)》,比较两本教材的侧重点及使用情况。
同时,也分析在意大利大学中开设商务汉语课程的专业,例如威尼斯大学的"东亚语言、文化与社会专业",基耶蒂-佩斯卡拉大学的"针对企业,国际合作的外语专业"以及都灵大学的"亚非语言与文明专业"。
在文章的最后介绍在意大利学习商务汉语课程的学生所进行的社会实践。
Ms. Zhuo Li 爱尔兰成人汉语初学者学习动机浅析
学习动机是学生维持学习的动力,是影响学习者的一项重要的心理现象。笔者结合已有相关欧洲二语学习动机理论,通过问卷和访谈的方法对爱尔兰都柏林成人汉语初学者的学习动机进行了调查。根据该项调查结果,笔者分析讨论了影响成年汉语学习者学习动机的因素。加上个人教学实践,再结合成年人学习特点以及汉语本身的教学规律,提出了针对成年汉语学习者的教学尝试——以HSK考试为指导下的量化教学方针。希望能使学生不断获得学习成就感,保持学习热情,从而推进海外汉语教学。
Ms. Pei-Yu Liao Motivation of learning Chinese as a foreign language in Russia: Chinese dining manner as an example to explore the relation between learning motivation and cultural awareness
Motivation plays a significant role in Chinese language learning. It is not only relevant to language learning efficiency but cultural awareness. Based on the cognitional aspect of motivation theory, motivation is a learning process which related to surrounded environment. Language learning environment should be able to provide leaners sufficient cultural stimulation and language input to facilitate the motivation of leaners. To Chinese language learners in Russia, cultural stimulation of Chinese is insufficient to support their learning process. Thus, how to promote the cultural awareness in Chinese language learning process is a pivotal issue to discuss.
According to the relevant theory, learners connect the new assumption with previous knowledge, which is the old assumption. If the new assumption is similar or extending the old assumption, the new assumption will be accepted. On the contrary, if the new assumption in conflict with the old assumption, either the new assumption replaces the old assumption or the new assumption be refused to accept. The assumption is based on the maximum of relevance in utterance. It can be referred that Chinese language learners need sufficient cultural inputs to reach the aim of comprehending Chinese learning materials. The process has a huge impact on their motivation facilitation.
Chinese dining manner is a significant symbol of Chinese culture. Chinese language learners are able to explore Chinese culture and custom through learning Chinese dining manner. Via the process of learning Chinese dining words such as ‘勸酒’, ‘做東’ and ‘入座’, learners attempt to connect the culture awareness between Chinese and Russia. By comprehending the meaning of Chinese dining manner, the new assumptions are built. It is referred that motivation of learning Chinese may be promoted as well.
The research is based on the relevant theory aspect to discuss cognitive motivation of Chinese learning in Russia. There are some words related to Chinese dining manners are selected to test the cultural awareness of Russian students who learn Chinese as a foreign language. These Russian students also attend the interview. According to the result, the research will discuss the relation between Chinese learning motivation and cultural awareness.
Dr. Chin-hui Lin “翻转课堂”模式使用于大学汉语课程之尝试与思考
近年来,不少汉语教师如陈(2014)、徐、史(2014)、曾(2016)都曾尝试在自己的课堂中进行所谓的“翻转课堂” (flipped classroom)教学设计。相对于“传统”的“先教后练”的课堂教学形式,起源于2007年的“翻转课堂” 将传统课堂的教学形式加以“翻转”——随着电脑与网络技术的发达,教师可将学习者容易习得的主要知识内容在课前传达。此一教学模式有利于将以往课堂上“以教师为中心”的教学模式翻转为“以学生为中心”的教学模式。
然而,此一教学模式虽有一定的好处,在实际课堂教学中究竟该如何“翻转”——部分翻转或全部翻转?针对何种类型的课程及学习者较为合适?学生的接受度为何?——仍然是有待讨论的问题。本文拟通过笔者在德国大学中所设计的一门高级口语课程,探讨此一教学模式使用于大学汉语课程之利弊。
Dr. Li Long The Development and Problems of Chinese Teaching in Norway:A case study on Confucius Institute of Bergen挪威汉语教学的发展与问题——以卑尔根孔子学院为例
1966年起,挪威奥斯陆大学就有了中文课,但是中文教学并未受到挪威社会的重视。直到2007年卑尔根大学学院、卑尔根中国协会和卑尔根大学与北京体育大学合作建立了挪威第一家也是唯一的一家孔子学院,即卑尔根孔子学院。孔子学院的建立标志着汉语教学进入了系统、快速发展的新阶段。2008年-2016年,卑尔根孔子学院的学习汉语的人数从68人发展到739人。
在这大规模发展的8年时间里,汉语教学也遇到了一些亟待解决的问题,例如:如何有效地在汉语教学中贯彻挪威素质教育的理念;如何在教学中因材施教,不放弃任何一名学业成就较低的学生;如何编制出具有国别化特色又符合挪威外语标准的系列教材及教辅;教师如何适应挪威教育文化等问题。这些问题在一定程度上制约着挪威汉语教学的质量提高与规模的进一步提升。通过对以上问题的思考,本研究提出了一些建议。
Dr. Wei Lun Lu 試論中東歐二線以下城市的華僑中文教學:以捷克布爾諾的華僑學校為例
本文旨探討在中東歐二線以下城市的華僑中文教學所遇到的挑戰及可能的克服方法。

中東歐為較晚近華僑開始移入之地,因此華僑人口不似西歐國家或英美龐大。相較之下,要以西歐國家的規模及範式發展華僑學校極為困難。諸多難處首先包括第一、師資難尋。師資來源的首要問題為家長職業,因在華僑稀少的狀況下,祖籍為中國之家長職業多為經營中餐館,祖籍台灣的家長多為台商公司外派幹部,因此兩類族群皆每日工作時間極長、年工作日數亦極高。在此狀況下,雖有意栽培第二代學習中文,大部分當地華僑都難於工作之餘抽出時間經營僑校。第二、華裔學生數量極少。學生人數自然受限於華僑總人口數,而此問題於首都以外的小城市更為明顯。蓋華僑有群聚傾向,故多移入首都。在華僑人口稀少的狀況下,難以有規模的方式經營僑校。

本文將以捷克布爾諾市新近成功發展的小型華僑學校為例,提出一套未來可供中東歐二線以下城市發展的模型以克服上述問題。
Ms. Aránzazu Luna Díaz 国际汉语字母教学法
国际汉语字母教学法,采用26个通用拉丁字母表示中华几千年的语言文化全部。拼写简短、音义交融、全息通透,利于教学、便于应用。
汉语字母教学法为21世纪对外汉语教学新模式,以国际主流文字实行汉语教学新方法。
教师用外国人所熟悉的拼音模式教授汉语;学生用自己所熟悉的拼音方法学习汉语。
外国人用所熟悉的拼音文字听汉语、说中国话;用所熟悉的拼音文字阅读、书写中文。
汉语字母教学法引古老汉字闪亮转身。这是一个全新的汉语世界! 汉语汉文化脱掉了冗装重甲,轻灵洒脱,信手可拈。
东方旧貌俱新颜。似曾相识,却倍感亲近。
学习国际字母化汉语,体验中华上下五千年的极速穿越;感受世界横贯东、西的遥远跨越;聆听人类未来融谐的福音。
Ms. Cuihua Ma 《文化教学在英国小学汉语课堂的运用与思考》
语言与文化密不可分,互相影响与依赖。汉语国际推广既是语言的推广,也是文化的推广。本文以英国南安普顿Mansbridge小学孔子课堂为例,采用观察法、案例分析法等方法,综合运用对外汉语教学、文化语言学、语言心理学、语言教育学等理论,整理和分析了文化教学在英国小学汉语课堂的运用情况;提出了文化教学在英国小学汉语课堂的运用原则及策略;与此同时本文也指出了一些文化教学运用的误区及解决方案。最后,本文指出了文化教学的运用给国际汉语教师胜任力带来的挑战。
Dr. Joooeck Maeng 汉字文化圈汉语词汇学习的特点
汉字文化圈的汉语教学有其共性,但是由于汉字文化圈的范围比较广,所以各个国家的具体情况也有一些出入。本文以韩国学习者为对象探讨汉语词汇学习的特点。

韩语和汉语不是同一个语系的语言,所以句法上有较大的差异,以语言之间的距离来说,韩国人学汉语应该有较大的难度。但是由于在词汇学习方面有一定的优势,所以总的来讲学习效果比较好。

词汇学习上的优势源于韩汉两语之间的语言接触和交融。韩国自引进汉字以来,长期把汉字当做记录书面语言的工具,同时使用大量的汉源词(汉语词汇+用汉字造的词)。韩国从二十世纪中期采用"韩文专用"的政策,目前在日常生活中几乎不使用汉字(这种情况类似于越南,有别于日本),这是对书面形式而言的,实际上仍然有大量的汉源词在使用。这些汉源词是韩语词汇系统中的主要组成部分。

韩国学习者在汉语词汇学习上所占的优势是能够运用汉字素养。韩国学习者在开始学汉语之前已有一定的汉字素养,这汉字素养是间接形成的,虽然他们不直接用汉字书写,但是通过大量的使用汉源词的经验,不知不觉间积累了跟汉字有关的知识,进而归纳出一些音节音所代表的语素义。这在入门阶段有比较大的积极作用,但是到了中高级以上水平也会有一些消极作用。韩国学习者的汉字素养引起正迁移和负迁移。正迁移是开始的时候对汉语学习有帮助的,由于过度泛化的心理因素,人们对正迁移作用的估计过高,也会对后续的学习埋下隐患。负迁移,顾名思义,是有负面影响的现象,一般是学习进度到了中级课程以后出现的多,但是多数学习者对负迁移注意不足,心理上的懈怠更成为问题的根源。
Dr. Raibaud Martine Study of cultural exchanges between China and Europe to strengthen French students' motivation in learning Chinese.
我们在多年教授中国语言与文化的过程中发现,中西文化交流是构成法国汉语学习者动机的重要组成部分。这种动机的成因不难解释,一来,时值今日,对年轻的大学生来说,学习中文和了解中国文化代表着非常有潜力的职业前景,二来,汉语学习者感觉他们自己也是这种双向交流在某种意义上的参与者。我们以丝绸之路这个主题举例来说,学生们会感觉到他们自己就是其中的一分子,因为丝绸之路从长安出发一直延伸到了地中海...
我们的发言围绕着一个系列中国文化课的设计而展开,主要从历史,经济贸易,文化交流以及与中国社会现实相关联等几个方面来阐述中国文化课程的设计,从内容到形式都以考虑汉语学习者的动机为出发点。还是以丝绸之路为主题,我们在课程内容设计的时候,引入了最近中国政府出台的« 一带一路 »的发展战略,这样既让学生深入理解了丝绸之路在中西商贸往来上的意义,也给予他们一把开启了解中国政府当前对外经济贸易发展思路的钥匙。
总而言之,作为中国语言与文化的教授者和传播者,我们必须把汉语学习者的动机放在我们课程设计的首要位置。只有这样,我们课程的内容与形式才能与时俱进,受到学习者的欢迎。
Ms. Olga Maslovets The requirements for the modern textbook of Chinese language
Keywords: the modern textbook of Chinese language, the requirements, the levels of the textbook.
The article deals with the problem of the creation the textbook of Chinese language. The author of the article presents the requirements for the textbook for secondary school’s students and analyses them on different levels.
The author identifies several levels: methodological, the level of purpose, the level of content, the structural level, level of communicative development, the level of sociоcultural development, the level of-specific features of Chinese language.
On the methodological level the author consides different approaches and principles in teaching foreign languages.
At the level of purpose, according to the authors idea, the textbook must satisfy the requirements of the national educational standard, which includes the modern level of the requirements for language skills.
At the level of content the textbook should reflects the national objectives of teaching foreign language:
1) items of speech / issues / problems / situations of communication;
2) language and speech materials, different levels of language: phonetic, lexical, grammatical, the level of communication);
3) procedural aspectы of the learning content.
At the structural level, according to the author’s idea, the textbook should reflect its internal (conceptual) structure.
At the level of communicative development the textbook should be directed to the realization of the main purpose of teaching Chinese – the formation of foreign language communicative competence.
At the level of sociocultural development the textbook must realize the sociocultural orientation in teaching Chinese involving students in the dialogue of cultures (intercultural dialogue). At the level of-specific features of Chinese the author reviews specific features of Chinese languages, that must be represented in the different contents of the textbook.
Ms. Evgenia Mitkina Social and Political Text Teaching at the SPBU
Translation of social and political texts is a part of the program of Chinese language course taught at the Department of Chinese philology of the SPBU. It is introduced in the first semester of the third course, when students return from China after language study course.
The subject of this course is represented by newspaper texts, speeches of the head and top officials of China and political documents. The materials are usually taken from web versions of the leading newspapers “People’s Daily” (人民日报), “GuangmingDaily” (光明日报), as well as from news portals – such as, for example, the Xinhua News Agency’s website. Choice of a social and political text is important, but involves certain difficulties. The majority of modern textbooks do not meet the objectives of such course. Therefore, articles exactly from the Internet have to be used predominantly – first, because the most up-to-date information can be found there; second, it provides a wide range of social and political texts.
Topics of such texts are political systems and government structure, elections, visits, meetings, negotiations, agreements, the UN Charter, environment, globalization, terrorism, Russia and NATO, nuclear disarmament, dangerous diseases, natural disasters, economic relations, as well as any other topic related to the current political situation in the world.
Lessons are usually arranged as follows:
1. Reading the text aloud sentence by sentence sequentially. First, this facilitates remembering the way characters should be read; second, trains pronunciation.
2. Translation of read sentences along with analysis of all encountered patterns and constructions.
3. Singling out those patterns and constructions that have multiple occurrences in such texts.
4. Repetition of previously learnt constructions and patterns (dictations, interpreting from Russian to Chinese and from Chinese to Russian in oral and written form).
The main difficulties students face when translating social and political texts are:
1. Inaptitude for seeing constructions;
2. Inability to isolate interrelated elements;
3. Translation of official capacities and names of organizations;
4. Translation of the newest terms that cannot be found in dictionaries.
One of the course objectives is to solve these difficulties, to develop the ability to overcome them.
In the process of study, multimedia equipment (presentations, run of news items, etc.) is used.
Ms. Jun Ni Use of Modern Technology in Chinese Language Teaching
Although technology has become embedded in our everyday lives, researchers and practitioners are constantly striving to find ways to incorporate technology in education, particularly in the field of language acquisition. The development of technology is reflected by a progressive proliferation of web resources and multimedia software for language teaching and learning, particularly computer-assisted language learning (CALL), which has become a very significant research area within applied linguistics.
This paper addresses a debate that has become central to recent developments regarding CALL: on the one hand, many academics have argued that individuals should be encouraged to engage in activities using modern technology in the target language as it provides learners with an opportunity to obtain rich input and output in the target language; on the other hand, others have expressed concern that technology may confine individuals to only participating within their existing networks and reduce immersion time spent in the target language and culture.
Thus, this paper seeks to address the usefulness of CALL in language acquisition through two case studies of twelve Year 4 and ten Year 1 students who were part of a Chinese language degree program in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). The core focus of this paper is to explore learners’ attitudes and beliefs towards the effect that using technology had on their written production skills. Data on beliefs and attitudes were collected through online surveys. Throughout the year, students were to submit assignments on a regular basis through either e-mail or WeChat. Results revealed that students written production skills improved significantly. Furthermore, students indicated that producing written text using technology helped to facilitate their production at a considerably faster rate, increasing both confidence and motivation. Through a survey requesting students’ experience of acquiring knowledge through these digital resources and implementing it through CALL facilitated written and oral communication, this paper ultimately aims to demonstrate that modern technology can be a useful tool for second language learners of Chinese.
Ms. Zhinan Niu 论“混合式学习”理念下的教学设计创新 ——以匈牙利罗兰大学孔子学院教学实践为例
随着全世界范围内“汉语热”的来临和互联网技术的普及,通过网络、利用多媒体技术学习汉语的人越来越多。所谓“混合式学习”就是要把传统学习方式的优势和网络化学习的优势结合起来,也就是说,既要发挥教师引导、启发、监控教学过程的主导作用,又要充分体现学生作为学习过程主体的主动性、积极性与创造性。在这样的新形势下,如何运用现代教育技术和资源进行教学设计,对国际汉语教师提出了新的挑战。
本文将以第二语言教学法、教学设计理论以及现代教育技术的研究为基础,结合作者在匈牙利罗兰大学孔子学院的教学实践,探讨混合教学模式下的教学设计理念的创新思路,以期对当下国际汉语教师教学设计能力的培养有所启发。
Kayoko Okumura 19世纪欧洲人的汉语学习和英语课本的影响-以收录词汇和分类方法为主要研究对象-
英国人罗伯聃编纂的《华英通用杂话》(1843年)和《华英通语》(1855年以后)等是为了中国人的英语学习编写的课本,但是这些课本不仅是为中国人的英语课本,而且对欧洲人来说是可以当做汉语课本学习汉语的课本,可以说具有英语课本和汉语课本的两侧面的语言教材。值得注意的是;编写这些课本的时候,先有汉语后有英语,这说明编写这些课本要有一定的汉语水平。我们可以认为这些课本是在欧洲人学习汉语经验的基础上编写的。本文以《华英通用杂话》和《华英通语》等英语课本和有关资料为主,主要对收录的词汇和分类方法进行调查,研究英语课本对汉语课本的影响。
Dr. George Orlandi 語言與共同體——以漢語史為例
據統計,目前為止,全球有六分之一人口使用漢語作為母語。如今,漢語是中國的官方語言,屬於漢藏語系的分析語。‘漢語’這一名稱出現得比較晚,而古代最流行的名稱則為‘漢言’。 此後,《遼史》、《金史》和《元史》中“漢語”此名稱徹底替代了“漢言”的說法。1980年偉大語言學家王力先生在其《漢語史稿》說道:“漢語史是關於漢語發展的內部規律的科學。”漢語史從根本上講,必然與漢族人的歷史有密切的關係。研究漢語史的人必須研究漢族人的歷史活動與發展,毋庸置疑。除此之外,有人認為,正是由於“巴別塔”的宿命,語言是排除工具,畢竟所有偉大而具有古典傳統的共同體,都藉助某種和超越塵世的權利秩序相聯結的神聖語言為中介,將自己設想為位居宇宙的中心(Anderson, 1980)。打個比方,古希臘人將那些不會說希臘語的民族稱為“野蠻人”(希臘文:βάρβαρος,“結巴者”)的做法,也能證明這一點。雖然如此,王力先生認為,為了研究漢語史應該重視各親屬語言的歷史以及日語、朝鮮語、越南語等其他語言中的漢語藉詞研究。為何如此?因為在實際上,語言是個包容性的工具,即在原則上,任何人都可以學習任何一種語言。正是由於語言包容性的本質,在語言中高度凝集著不同民族之間交流的精神與痕跡。故而,本文的主要內容分兩步:其一、介紹漢語對許多國家的影響;其二、漢語中的外來詞及外語藉詞。總而言之,本文以漢語史為例試圖證明語言與共同體之間的關係。
Ms. Caitríona Osborne Preliminary Results investigating the Effectiveness of Rote Memorisation, Delayed Character Introduction, Character Colour-coding and a Mixed-methods approach when Teaching Chinese to Beginner Learner
The paper presents preliminary results of the investigation of four different methods in

introducing Chinese characters to beginner learners of Chinese as a foreign

language (CFL). Approximately 98 learners aged 14–16 participated in the research

and are divided into four groups. Three groups of participants are learning Chinese

via one of the three approaches: rote memorization (Dehn, 2008; Greenberg, 2000),

delayed character introduction (Chen, Wang & Cai, 2010; Ye, 2013) and character

colour-coding (Dummit, 2008; Pleco, 2016). The fourth group of participants is used as

a control group and has been taught with the usual mixed approach observed in five

Irish higher institutions. Two formative evaluations were conducted to analyse the

participants’ development in learning the character recall and recognition, as well as

the use of characters. Previous research (e.g. Poole & Sung, 2015; Xu, Chang, Zhang &

Perfetti, 2013; Tan, Spinks, Eden, Perfetti & Siok, 2005) in the area of CFL acquisition

tends to focus on learners’ ability to recall characters, with less emphasis on the

overall use of Chinese language. Therefore, the evaluations presented to the

participants in this study not only focused on character recall and recognition, but

also the ability to use Chinese language in communication. The evaluations consist

of sections including: (1) dictation; (2) recognising and recalling characters; (3) cloze

tests; (4) reordering sentences of a Chinese conversation and; (5) producing a text in

describing a picture. The first formative evaluation was carried out after around four

weeks’ teaching and the second one was conducted after another four weeks of

teaching. Therefore, the results reported here reflect the effectiveness of each

teaching method on the study of Chinese characters in the first eight weeks. The

study reveals that rote memorisation seems to be the most effect method in helping

CFL beginners in acquiring the individual characters, particularly the orthography of

Chinese characters, however only in the early stages of learning CFL. Character

colour-coding proved to be useful in the acquisition of character phonology and for

learning the use of characters during the study. Although delayed character

introduction was hypothesised to be effective in assisting learners to acquire the

phonology and semantics of Chinese characters, this method did not show

significant positive effects among CFL beginners in the early stage or later stage of

character learning. The control group at first showed promising signs in terms of

acquiring character use, however this did not continue over the course of the study.

As this is an ongoing one-year project and the data collection will continue until May

2017, further analyses will be conducted to scrutinise these initial findings.

Keywords: Chinese language; Chinese as a foreign language; Language pedagogy
Mr. Fang Pan 从英美汉语教学的比较看欧洲汉语教学的发展方向
在世界汉语教学上,许多成功的汉语教学理念和方法往往借鉴了美国的一些实践。从赵元任那一代的老前辈开始,美国的汉语常常走在前列。这其中不乏有着根本原因。本文想要探讨的就是根据笔者在美国高等院校及一些美国著名的暑期强化项目中几年的教学经验,主要通过以下四个方面:美国汉语教学理念的历史性、美国大学汉语课程的性质与安排、在美汉语教师的授课形式及培训、美国汉语教学的方法与研讨等,对比本人目前在英国高校汉语教学的实践,从中分析两者在汉语教学上的异同与优劣,并由此提供一些汉语教学的建议,最后展望汉语教学在欧洲可能可以发展的方向。
Ms. Luisa Maria Paternicò Evaluation of some difficulties in applying the CEFR’s competence levels to Chinese language
Every year in Europe, Chinese language courses are increasingly becoming part of the curricula in universities and schools. Even though many claim to refer to European standards, an officially recognized standard does not exist. For European languages, there is an officially accredited reference framework. The Council of Europe created it with the aim to establish definitions of linguistic competences divided into levels together with the criteria to assess them. The landscape of Chinese language teaching in Europe, on the other hand, is inconsistent. It is, however, quite inconvenient that each single institution of each single European country proceeds independently from the others; this can have many disadvantages and can negatively affect student mobility.
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) is a descriptive system used to scale the abilities acquired by those who study a European foreign language. It was developed by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project Language Learning for European Citizenship between 1989 and 1996.
The European project European Benchmarking Chinese Language (EBCL) has recently proposed a definition of the competence levels for Chinese language based on the Common European Framework of Reference. The project was launched in London in November 2010 and ended with the Brussels Symposium in October 2012. The descriptors prepared by the EBCL project concern levels A1 and A2 of the CEFR (five EBCL levels: A1.1, A1, A1+, A2, A2+). The work for level B1 was drafted with the hope that further funding will make it possible to complete the work. A total of 243 descriptors were created together with a series of supporting documents belonging to the CEFR competence range: a list of themes and topics, a list of language functions and lists of Chinese characters and lexical units for the proposed levels. This work might lead in the future to a to a reform of todays’ syllabi, textbooks and teaching approach in general.
However, while working at the drafting of syllabi for Chinese language courses in Italy at university and high school levels, some problems aroused in matching the CEFR/EBCL competence scales with the actual teaching situation and requirements. This study will present an overview on the main difficulties in applying the European scales to the case of Chinese language and will try to suggest possible solutions to the problem.
Ms. Bruna Peixoto Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles and the teaching and learning of Chinese as a Foreign Language
In previous work we have established that teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language may in fact involve different aspects of one’s intelligence, as proposed by Howard Gardner in his Multiple Intelligences Theory. This idea sprang mainly from the Chinese language system specific characteristics such as its visual-semantic writing system, its tonal and monosyllabic phonetic system, and its lexical category, which in itself measure up fairly well to some of Gardner’s multiple intelligences.

However, we believe that the sole use of this theory in the teaching and learning of Chinese language is not enough to optimize and motivate students in their learning process. In order to maximize its use, we propose in this paper that combining students’ multiple intelligences (what they learn) and their learning styles (how they learn) may enrich, heighten and further develop their learning and acquisition of Chinese language.

In order to establish the validity of our hypothesis, we have designed specific tests to uncover students’ multiple intelligences strengths and weaknesses and learning styles. We have then isolated a group of students with whom we have been carrying out a case study to establish the relation between their intelligences, learning styles and Chinese language learning and acquisition, and if this approach may in fact help them to overcome their shortcomings.

In this paper we will present not only our preliminary results on this case study, but also what type of methods and exercises Chinese language teachers may use to encourage and motivate students in learning and acquiring Chinese, making use of their strongest intelligences and learning styles preferences.
Mr. Jiří Plucar Teaching Chinese Characters as Part of Chinese Language Curriculum at University
In my paper, I will focus on the importance of including relevant aspects and issues of teaching the Chinese writing into the Chinese language curriculum. I will assess the contents of such a university course suggesting a whole of considerable components that can be recommended for such a course. The internal structural complexity of Chinese characters and the specific relation between the figurative and phonetic aspects make the Chinese writing a challenge for a teacher to deal with and to transmit it to students. Thus, I consider it a significant task to find an appropriate set of elements that form a Chinese writing lesson as part of a linguistic curriculum. I will talk about all the necessary components of such a course such as basic writing principles, structural analysis, graphical typology, graphical variants, the case of simplified and traditional forms, synchronic and diachronic aspects, etc. All this will be discussed according to my own teaching experience based on how this course is managed at my domestic university.
Ms. Can Qi 马若瑟的汉语观研究 ——以《汉语札记》为中心
早期耶稣会士在西方人汉语学习与研究的历史上扮演了重要角色,他们编写的各种汉语学习的教材与研究著作也为后来人提供了可依据的材料。马若瑟(Joseph de Prémare,1666-1736)即是早期来华耶稣会士中的杰出代表,他对于中国语言及文学都有着深入了解,一生著述颇丰。该书努力跳出拉丁语法体系,从汉语自身特征出发,同时对汉语官话及文言进行研究,对后世产生了深远影响。本文针对《汉语札记》(Notitia Linguae Sinicae,1728)中马若瑟的描述,分析其对汉语的认识。
Mr. Bin Qian 面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)
面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)



摘要:汉语教学界长期存在“重精读,轻泛读”的问题,海外学习者课外的语言输入不足的问题尤为突出。鲁健骥(2002)、赵金铭(2006)等认为大力加强泛读课程的建设是对外汉语教学的当务之急,尤其是要编写大量供泛读使用的读物。

随着《中文天天读》、《汉语风》等一批分级读物问世,学习者泛读材料的选择日渐丰富。但分级读物的知晓度如何,具体需求有哪些等问题都有待调查。针对这些问题,我们设计了调查问卷,通过对英、法等国百余位汉语教师的调查得到相关数据,希望通过数据分析能得出有益于汉语分级读物开发、修订以及评估方面的参考性结论。
Mr. Bin Qian 面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)
面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)



摘要:汉语教学界长期存在“重精读,轻泛读”的问题,海外学习者课外的语言输入不足的问题尤为突出。鲁健骥(2002)、赵金铭(2006)等认为大力加强泛读课程的建设是对外汉语教学的当务之急,尤其是要编写大量供泛读使用的读物。

随着《中文天天读》、《汉语风》等一批分级读物问世,学习者泛读材料的选择日渐丰富。但分级读物的知晓度如何,具体需求有哪些等问题都有待调查。针对这些问题,我们设计了调查问卷,通过对英、法等国百余位汉语教师的调查得到相关数据,希望通过数据分析能得出有益于汉语分级读物开发、修订以及评估方面的参考性结论。
Mr. Bin 彬 Qian 钱 面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)
摘要:汉语教学界长期存在“重精读,轻泛读”的问题,海外学习者课外的语言输入不足的问题尤为突出。鲁健骥(2002)、赵金铭(2006)等认为大力加强泛读课程的建设是对外汉语教学的当务之急,尤其是要编写大量供泛读使用的读物。

随着《中文天天读》、《汉语风》等一批分级读物问世,学习者泛读材料的选择日渐丰富。但分级读物的知晓度如何,具体需求有哪些等问题都有待调查。针对这些问题,我们设计了调查问卷,通过对英、法等国百余位汉语教师的调查得到相关数据,希望通过数据分析能得出有益于汉语分级读物开发、修订以及评估方面的参考性结论。
Ms. Lola Rakhimbekova Training of qualified Chinese-Russian Translators and Interpreters in Russia: yesterday and today
The teaching of Chinese language in Russia has a long history, but for a long time it was mainly for research purposes: students studied Chinese ancient philosophy, history and literature, training of oral interpreters, for example, was given little attention. Today, however, in accordance with the increasing economic and political status of People’s Republic of China, a sharp rise in Russian-Chinese trade relations, economic and humanitarian cooperation etc., a lot of Russian companies established business contacts with Chinese partners, Chinese business’ presence in Russia becomes more than visible, numerous conferences with the participation of Chinese partners are held annually in different cities of Russia. As a result the need for specialists in Chinese language able to provide a qualified written, oral and simultaneous translation from Chinese into Russian and from Russian into Chinese increased significantly.
The report describes the specificities of Moscow Linguistic University’ Translation and Interpretation Graduate Program, focuses on the methods used in teaching students translation and interpretation, also accentuates the difficulties faced by native Russian students in the process of mastering the techniques of the Chinese-Russian and Russian-Chinese translation and interpretation.
Ms. Mary Ruane Mainstreaming Chinese in the public education secondary sector: issues and challenges
The teaching of Chinese has grown exponentially around the world in the last 20 years. Expansion has happened across all education sectors. This paper addresses one aspect of this expansion: the teaching of Chinese in secondary education. On foot of many recent initiatives around the world, it is now possible to take stock, draw inferences and look forward. Drawing on the example of one country (Ireland) and referencing work from elsewhere, the paper seeks to pinpoint some key issues to be addressed.

Evidence of effectiveness in Chinese teaching at second level shows mixed results. A general consensus is that, without a strong focus on strategic planning, successful mainstreaming and upscaling of Chinese will continue to prove challenging. While all language learning has to be planned (Lo Bianco 2016, Cummins 2014), effective Chinese language teaching requires a higher order of effort: planning cannot be left to chance or market forces.

Among a broad range of factors, some stand out as critical: the need for strategic leadership from national authorities, developing teacher capacity and much-improved coordination of research and practice.

As well as fixing high-level aspirations for the teaching of Chinese, national leaders have to implement on the ground. Increasingly crowded curricula, the place for Chinese and other languages, the role of proficiency benchmarks, time allocation policies are just some contested.
Dr. Liu Ruo-mei History on learning in Russia in the past, 中俄语言交流:以历史上俄罗斯人的汉语学习为中心
本发言将从三个方面——着眼于学术文化发展的中俄早期语言交流、着眼于中俄交往实际需要的以驻华东正教使团为中心的中俄语言交流、历史上中俄语言交流的成果,系统梳理俄国汉语教学的历史,并针对历史上俄罗斯人汉语教学的重要机构、教材、成就等展开深入研究,追踪俄罗斯人汉语教学的传统,分析中俄两国文化发生碰撞、交流的基本过程。
Dr. Ho(Feng) Sato(Zhu) 汉语教学的几个新尝试
本人在日本大学教学汉语已有20个年头了。在这20年中,随着时代的更新及学生素质的变化,汉语课本及汉语教学方法有了很大的变化。本论文主要想介绍一下本人在汉语教学中的几个新尝试以及日本的汉语教学现状。
日本大学中除了一小部分汉语专业的学生以外,大部分的学生均选择汉语作为第2外语,而且动机在于拿学分。对于这些学生,我们需要在教材和教学方法上下功夫,让他们从被动学习转向积极主动学习。我想在此介绍几种新的尝试。
1.采用适合年轻人的汉语教材,包括漫画教材,音乐教材。
2.利用ICT(Information and Communication Technology)技术,诸如Quizlet,YouTube,Pentel等应用软件,让汉语学习环境接近年轻学生的日常生活,摒弃枯燥乏味,增添轻松愉快。
3.营造多元化语言环境。不仅仅是单纯的日语-汉语,或汉语-日语学习,而是英语,汉语,日语等多种语言同时使用,让学生体验到国际化的汉语。
总之,本人希望通过具体介绍几个目前在日本汉语教学中的新尝试,与欧洲的同仁们做一些互动交流。
Dr. Biljana (碧莲娜) Simic Velickovic 塞尔维亚学生学习汉语的动机
摘要
塞尔维亚学习者认为汉语是世界上最难的语言。所以他们比较害怕选择学习汉语。他们担心是否能获得好的成绩。学生对汉语有一种陌生感,所以不太敢把汉语作为选修课。目前,大部分人比较喜欢把汉语作为兴趣课,这样他们没有学习的压力,可以轻松地学习。比如说在孔子学院,汉语是兴趣课,所以学生学习地比较努力,成绩也不错。
学生对汉语的这种态度,跟他们对中国的态度有密切的关系。大部分塞尔维亚人不了解中国,也不了解中国文化。这个问题比较现实,因为在塞尔维亚,大部分中国人从事商务方面的工作,所以塞尔维亚人除了中国小商店以外,对中国几乎一无所知。
这些问题导致塞尔维亚学生学汉语的动机不太强。如何提高学习汉语的动机?本文试图找到对该问题的一些建议和对策。
关键词: 塞尔维亚学生、学习汉语、动机
Dr. Lianyi Song 利用听写软件辅助口语练习与测试的探索
目前,多种学习汉字的软件已经在很大程度上改变了学习者学习汉字的过程和习惯。汉语语音及声调学习的软件及其在口语测试中的应用似仍不太普遍且相关应用研究相对较少,而利用听写软件辅助中文口语教学似乎更少。本人试图探讨一下如何利用听写软件辅助口语练习与测试。

首先,语音识别技术的发展近些年来有了长足的发展,这一技术普遍用于语音指令,话语记录,并进一步应用于口语翻译。这几类应用恰恰给语言教学提供了机遇。

另外,智能手机的普遍使用使学习更加个体化,学习过程也更加灵活,大大减少了学习者对课堂教学以及与教师面对面的交流的依赖。利用听写软件不仅可提高学习者学习兴趣,同时为他们提供一个自学和自测的平台。
Ms. Lihua Song 19世纪欧洲汉语教材中的中国小说及其当代教学启示
19世纪以后,受制于各种政治、文化目的,欧洲人学习汉语的热情十分高涨。这一时期来华的传教士、外交官等编纂了大量汉语教材,它们在内容上的一个显著变化是,选取中国古典小说作为汉语学习的内容成为一时风尚,并且编纂者为适应西方人学习汉语的要求以及时代变化,往往对其中收录的小说进行大刀阔斧的改动。马若瑟《汉语札记》(1729年成书,1831年初版)、罗伯聃《华英说部撮要》(1847)、威妥玛《语言自迩集》(1867)、晁德莅《中国文化教程》(1879-1882)、甲柏连孜《中国语法入门》(1883)、戴遂良《汉语入门》(1892)、禧在明《华英文义津逮》(1907)等都大量收录中国小说,作为汉语教学的语言素材,有助于学生在汉文化中学习汉语,对当代汉语教学颇多启示。
Dr. Carlotta Sparvoli Teaching in Primary School: Implementing the performative approach
This paper focuses on the presentation of a project conducted in two Primary Schools, having Irish as first language. The experimental group consists of a group of 65 learners attending the 5th and 6th classes (age 11/12). We are implementing a performative pedagogy (Schewe 2007), relying mainly on oral input, with a very reduced support of pinyin (to be conducted only in the last 20 hours of the project). At shis stage, we will present the results of our first tests on tone acquisition and segmental accuracy (both in perception and production). The problem we are addressing is related to the issues involved in teaching Chinese to Irish English bilingual learners in the first stages of their literacy education, when they are decoding skills in two languages in parallel. “Despite its greater regularity, Irish spelling is sufficiently complex and distinct from English to challenge learners” (Stenson 2016) therefore, in such scenario, presenting pinyin transcription might increase the decoding difficulties. Moreover, in a context where the syllabus already includes one or two EU Second Languages, Chinese teaching must be presented as a ludic performative moment so as not to overrburden pupils with a fourth language class. Despite this limitations, we are pursuing a measurable objective (HSK1) after 50 hours of training, where only the last 20 hours will be devoted to pinyin literacy and we intend to provide learners with rigorous basis for long term language acquisition. To this end, (I) a significant part of the curriculum is planned for helping students to become phonologically aware (becoming familiar with the segmental and supra segmental features so that they might grasp Chinese phonetic structure). (ii) Tones are presented accompanying the input with codified gestures, emphasizing each tonal contour, starting from the most basic tonal contrasts, as Low + High T3+T1, Falling + Rising T4+T1 (Cao 2000). This approach implies (iii) a multichannel pedagogy, based on the input+i model (Krashen 1982), always conducting in the target language and strongly relying on body language. (iv) The activity are planned so that students are not simply “understanding the input” by the teacher, but rather “enact” the language therefore producing immediately an output, according to the total physical response method (Asher 1977). In order to fill in the gap of written material, (v) the relevant content are presented also in the forms of memorized chunks, through songs and riddles including only the relevant lexicon and organized so as to let the learners notice the relevant syntactic structure. (vi) The introduction to the Chinese writing system is proposed under the form of task-based activities for reinforcing phonetic accuracy, where learners are invited to spell-out the strokes composing the most common radicals.
Ms. Lik Suen Chinese Teaching and Learning in the UK schools
英国文化协会和汉办是英国中小学汉语教学的主要推手。遍地开花的孔子学院为中文走进中小学课堂提供了可能的教师与资源。
本文将详细介绍英国中小学汉语教学的特点,主要教学模式, 存在的问题,发展的需求以及面临的挑战。
Ms. Palizhati Sulaiman 浅谈想想教学方式与汉子掌握之间的关系
法国中学汉语教学经验总结
Dr. Chao Fen Sun 美国汉语基准教学特征
汉语教学在美国没有国家标准,影响最大的是ACTFL 语文能力大纲,对五个主要的语言能力等级基准作出描述:优异、优秀、高级、中级及初级,并对讲话者在各个等级所能完成的任务以及与各等级任务有关的内容、语境、准确程度及谈话类型作出描述。 斯坦福大学的汉语教学以此大纲等级为基准,以重点培养学生在不同场合使用恰当得体汉语的能力为目标,对不同程度的课程建立了听说读写四个方面的具体教学目标。教学大纲的执行,成败在于师资的培训。我们对所有教师都进行了专门的培训,目前所有教师都是ACTFL认证的口试考监。课堂教学活动,力求任务目标明确,提供所有必需的词汇和语法,便于学生在不同的语境中,准确得体地完成任务。此外,我还会讨论如何面对在职师资培训较具的挑战性的问题。
Mr. Xun Sun 从《语言自迩集》到《官话指南》
英国外交官威妥玛编纂的京音官话课本《语言自迩集》在汉语教学史上影响巨大,也曾深刻影响19世纪后期日本的汉语教材编纂和汉语教学。《亚细亚言语集(支那官话部)》、《总译亚细亚言语集(支那官话部)》、《(新校)语言自迩集》(兴亚会支那语学校,1880)和《参订汉语问答篇日语解》等汉语教材都是截取《语言自迩集》内容而成。明治九年,中田敬义在《语言自迩集》影响下编纂北京官话教材《官话指南》,该书反过来对西方人学习汉语产生影响,出现多个欧洲译本。本文拟通过考察从《语言自迩集》到《官话指南》之间的汉语教材,揭示欧洲与日本编纂汉语教材的相互影响和对话。
Ms. Yue Tan 试论汉语教师培训模式区域化适用性——以“中东欧本土汉语教师培训”为例
本土教师培训是带动区域汉语教学逐步提升的重要方式。本文以“中东欧本土汉语教师培训中心”五期培训为分析材料,通过对培训教师特点、培训需求及培训反馈等方面的定性及定量分析,对适合本地区汉语教学需要的培训模式进行归纳,为该类培训提供理论积累。

关键词:中东欧,本土汉语教师,培训,培训模式
Mr. Kaijian Tang 意大利耶穌會士羅明堅的漢語學習及其中文詩研究
意大利耶穌會士羅明堅是第一個進入中國執行耶穌會巡視員范禮安對華傳教“適應政策”的傳教士,從1579年羅明堅踏入澳門,他就開始了其艱苦的漢語學習的歷程,他在很短的時間內很快就掌握了一定的漢語基礎,不僅能初步使用漢語與中國社會的各階層人士打交道,而且用漢語編纂傳播天主教教義的教理著作,還編出了第一本葡華詞典,以供傳教士的漢語學習。可以相信,羅明堅應該是第一位在中國境內學習漢語及中國文化的歐洲傳教士。而且,他的漢語學習已經達到了一定的程度,他還像中國的儒家士大夫一樣學習創作古典格律詩,雖然其詩歌創作並沒有達到中國士人詩歌創作的精熟程度,但仍可以反映羅明堅的漢語修養及水平的高度,並不完全如范禮安對他漢語的評價“他無法熟習當地語言”。本文故此對羅明堅所作的中文詩展開了較為詳細的分析。
Ms. Yaping Tang 对外汉语教学中现代教育技术问题探讨
本文着重讨论多媒体、互联网等现代教育技术在对外汉语教学中的运用的问题。现代教育技术的应用必将导致教育内容、教育方法、教育手段,以至教育模式和教育思想观念的深刻变革。对外汉语教学是一门新兴的学科,其基本目的是培养学生运用语言的能力,其中包括语言的构架能力和表达能力以及文化适应能力等等。对外汉语教学中运用现代教育技术这是教育教学发展的必然,但如何高效率的运用,如何结合对外汉语的教学性质特点,来科学合理地运用,这是对对外汉语教师迎接的一个挑战。根据对外汉语教学课程的性质,将从教学环节、教学对象、教学内容、学习者语言习得规律、课程类型以及知识重点等具体方面来探讨现代教育技术在对外汉语教学中的如何运用。
Dr. Lu  Tao 句法偏误类型初探—以日本汉语学习者为例—
本文根据笔者近十几年收集到的日本汉语学习者在作文中出现的偏误例子,对句法偏误的类型进行一个相对系统的分类,为深入研究汉语句法偏误及动因提供可靠的素材,并为分析不同语言背景的汉语学习者偏误的个性与共性问题提供参考,以促进汉语教学和汉语本体研究。
我们认为,划分汉语句法偏误的依据应当是句法范畴(即词类),而不是句法功能、句型句式或语法范畴。所以,我们将把句法偏误划分为包括名词、方位词、数量词、代词在内的体词类和包括动词、形容词在内的谓词类以及包括助动词、副词、介词、助词、连词在内的虚词这三大类。
各个句法范畴都程度不同地出现了搭配与呼应、缺失与赘余、错位、区别使用、句法范畴混淆等偏误类型。各个句法范畴出现的各类型偏误,一方面体现了汉语句法所具有的本质特征,一方面也揭示了来自日本学习者母语日语的干扰。而这些都将为我们比较分析不同语言背景下的汉语学习者的偏误类型并改进汉语教学尤其是语法教学提供坚实的依据。
Dr. Richard Trappl The significance of Chinese language education in Europe in the 21st Century
Regarding the growing importance of China today as well as the strategic relation between Europe and China in the complex context of the beginning of the 21st century, it is extremely important to raise the awareness in Europe for China, its culture and language, in order to contribute toward a better intercultural and political understanding.
Dr. Chin-Chin Tseng 運用翻轉教室學習平台進行歐洲時事新聞之漢語翻譯教學
本文基於翻譯教學是歐洲外語學習的基礎工具,嘗試利用翻譯教學精進漢語的理解與表達。採用的學習方式是翻轉教室,也就是學習者運用多媒體輔助中英字幕學習平台,建構英漢翻譯知識,再透過由學習者擷取自己評估值得學習的對譯詞語,設計翻譯搶答題,提高學習的趣味性。另外,學習者也選出值得練習對譯的句子,讓同學進行即席翻譯與帶領討論,透過進行漢外對比分析,加強運用漢語思維,提升漢語表達的正確度與流利度。教學影片取材為與歐洲時事相關的線上新聞「難民危機歐盟四國商談邊境政策」。本文的研究方法屬質化研究中的詮釋典範,從翻譯教學驗證有效的外語學習輸入及輸出。再從價值論的角度,探討翻轉教室與師生互動所產生的學習價值。
Mr. Tin Chau Tsui 学习动机和背景因素与荷兰汉语学生成绩的关系
提要:本研究的目的是探索学习动机和背景因素与荷兰汉语学生成绩的关系。研究者在2011年开始连续三年组织荷兰南方应用科技大学主修汉语专业的一年级学生(共145人)填写“二语动机自我系统”学习动机量表。此外,还收集了学生的性别、学历、中学毕业成绩等数据。经关联分析和回归分析,发现在背景因素中的性别和学历与汉语成绩不相关;中学毕业成绩与汉语成绩相关。“二语动机自我系统”中的“愿意沟通”和“工具型促进”与汉语成绩有显著相关。

关键词: 学习动机 背景因素 对外汉语教学 二语动机自我系统
Dr. Keiichi Uchida 西洋传教士的汉语研究的虚实论和波尔·罗瓦雅尔语法
我们仔细观察西洋人的汉语研究,就会发现他们非常巧妙摄取了中国传统的“虚实论”。如马若瑟、艾约瑟、马礼逊等。我看西洋人之所以能摄取堪称中国人传统语言观的“虚实论”,应该说有一个原因,就是他们具备了“可以吸收的基本条件”,那就是欧洲的“波尔・罗瓦雅尔(Port-Royal)语法”。
 “波尔・罗瓦雅尔语法―普遍唯理语法”作为17-8世纪欧洲拉丁语规范语法受到了高度的评价,并对18-9世纪的英语语法产生了深远的影响。特别是那个系统的这样的看法:所谓句中的“主部”与“谓部”都属于第一个作用,都是“认识的对象”;而连接这两者的成分,即“系词”才是统括整体的“思考的形态与方式”。“ 思考的对象”就是“客体性表达”,“思考的形态与方式”正是“主体性表达(表示说话人心情的词)”。由此可见,这种语言观与中国的“虚实论”以及时枝诚记的“词辞论”如出一辙。我准备在这次大会上报告这些内容。
Ms. Natalia Vlasova Chinese language learning and teaching: the prospects of online education
Nowadays the system of online-education is being actively developed. Students of all ages can go online and study literally in every corner of the globe anytime they wish. This form of teaching gives teachers opportunity to bring their knowledge to the widest possible audience. Thanks to modern technologies teachers have an excellent opportunity to gather detailed information concerning who may be interested in the course and the problems students may face, because despite the online format of distance education the whole process requires an active feedback from the students and their communication with the teacher.
St. Petersburg State University is working upon a large number of online courses, including several Chinese language courses. The release of the course named "Basic Chinese" is scheduled for February 15, 2017. This course is designed for ten weeks and is partly based on material that first-year students of the Department of Orient and African Studies, majoring in Chinese, study at the beginning of the second semester within the program "Phonetics and Spoken Chinese". One of the objectives is to allow students who do not have access to "full-time" educational resources, go through basic vocabulary and grammar of the Chinese language (level A1-A2 according to the Common European Framework of reference for language learning). Moreover the course serves the purpose of popularization of the Chinese language in order to inspire respect for the Chinese culture.
We believe that this course will be useful for the students self-studying the Chinese language, as well as for Chinese language teachers in Russian secondary schools because Chinese as a second foreign language will be included into the school curriculum.
Undoubtedly we expect some difficulties due to the fact that а teacher can not hear students talk and practice, however, the feedback in the process of learning and technology development will help to improve gradually the ways of presenting the material.
Ms. Dongshuo Wang A Student-initiated Online Newspaper Reading Resource for Learning CFL
The availability and sophistication of web-based tools have triggered curiosity and creativity from language tutors as well as language learners. An online digital newspaper reading resource in Chinese, initiated and implemented by Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) students, is such as example. As an online graded reader, the newspaper provides HSK 1-6 levelled news content daily. The interactive features benefit CFL learners with synchronisation across platforms - website, iOS and Android, which can be used in the platforms of Apps, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, and Google play. The online newspaper now enjoys high popularity among CFL students across Europe, with 1.3k tweets, 1.1k followers, and 994 likes among thousands of users to date.
In the online newspaper, the archive can be filtered by category and by date or year, which makes it easy for readers to select articles to read. With the export functions to Pleco, Skritte, Memrise & Anki.function, readers can join any group and interact with each other. The word bank function enables readers to select from print, export or rename word group, and move or delete selected words, and the words are shown in simplified or traditional characters, pinyin, or English. Readers can browse the words to categorize according to how well they know the words or by degree of difficulty. What is more, through Q/A function, readers can get online feedback from the online tutors in the editing team, and readers can discuss the feedback in Webo, Wechat, and Facebook.
Data from online surveys and interviews revealed that students liked it for its visual attributes, usability, interactivity, support for reading comprehension and for the cultural associations and functionality. The articles were interesting, insightful and informative, in that from the content, readers could get the information that they were seeking to use directly for their functional purposes; and from the structure, readers obtained the meta-information about the content that facilitated the accessing, processing, and sharing of information. By browsing the resource daily, readers could have a general idea of what was going on in China, and in other parts of the world in Chinese.
The pedagogical implications are that the web-based online reading approach has the potential to promote understanding through increased reading practice, systematic thinking, and structured content, which has the potential to arouse student interest, enlarge and consolidate the vocabulary, enhance reading comprehension skills and enrich learning experience.
Dr. Jingling Wang On the Teaching of Chinese News as a Second Language 对外汉语新闻课教学模式探究
在德国高校的中文系到高年级时学生开始接触到报刊语言,报刊语言属政论语体,篇幅短小,但长句多,专业词、新词、套语、惯用语、简称、书面语等较多。尤其是长句,非母语学生一时难于把握,读起来很吃力,课文看不懂,近则影响进度和效果,远则影响“达标”(即达到《汉语水平等级标准》)。笔者建议把传统的教学模式“报刊阅读课” 改进为多媒体课堂教学模式“新闻课”,选择比较常见的文体,专题性和时效性结合,并能激发学习者兴趣的内容,通过视听、口语互动协助主题理解,让学生了解报刊新闻语言特点,通过对词汇,语法及句法的分析加深阅读理解,在主题理解的基础上再次提高听力,运用主题词汇、词群进行写作,以此达到听说读写全方面训练的目的。
Ms. Jingru Wang 从波兰汉语教学研究看波兰汉语教学的发展 ——兼谈波兰汉语师资的培养
摘要
本论文尽可能地收集了公开发表的与波兰汉语教学有关的论文,主要讨论三个方面的问题:一、从纵向角度分析波兰汉语教学研究的发展,即波兰汉语教学研究的关注点是如何变化的,由此来分析波兰汉语教学与研究纵向发展的脉络;二、从横向角度进行分析,即在这些研究中,具体研究内容的类别有哪些,主要采用了哪些方法进行研究,哪些问题已经有了比较好的研究,哪些问题仍然有待研究;三、分析研究者的来源及身份、研究对象的地域及机构分布,并由此分析波兰汉语教学的发展进而讨论汉语师资来源及培养问题。
Dr. Tianmiao Wang 汉语慕课教学模式研究
本研究采用个案研究方法,通过课堂观察和访谈法,对北京某高校开设汉语慕课的教学目标、教学方法、教学内容、时长和教学效果等进行深入研究,并在此基础上提出汉语慕课的五个特点:第一,汉语慕课的影响力和学习者规模具有很大提升空间;第二,教学内容和方法应以学生汉语水平和交际需求为中心;第三,同伴互评和分享学习成果是提高汉语慕课学习者学习效果的有效途径;第四,汉语慕课教学须循序渐进;第五,慕课能从教育理念、知识、技能和自我效能感等多方面促进教师专业发展。同时,提出汉语慕课亟待解决的几个问题,包括:如何提高汉语慕课教学交际性和互动性;如何有效、及时地反馈学生提出的问题;以及加强人力和物力的支持与保障等。
Xuan Wang Chinese language learning and teaching in Dutch-speaking universities: contexts and challenges
In this presentation, we aim to offer an analytical sketch of the contexts and challenges of Chinese language learning and teaching (CLLT) in Dutch-speaking universities, focusing on “hogescholen”: universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands and Flemish Belgium. We locate CLLT in important and transitional contexts. CLLT has been an integral part of the long and rich disciplinary tradition of Sinology and China Studies in Dutch-speaking universities, notably in Leiden (NL) and Leuven (BE) where CLLT serves as an important means to access and advance knowledge about China/Chinese as a distinct geographic, cultural and racial/ethnic entity. Like in some other European higher education, CLLT falls within the paradigm of Area Studies and the training of scientific intellectuals par excellence, with a particular perception on the function and pedagogy of (Chinese) language. Recently CLLT began to emerge as a new subject in “hogescholen”, as an extension and supplement to traditional university education and, more, as a response to the need to provide highly trained professional workers with practical skills and knowledge (notably multilingual intercultural business communication) that are relevant and applicable to contemporary socioeconomic contexts. The “applied” nature and the “bestaansrecht” (the right of existence) required of CLLT provision by educational policies and realities places CLLT in a new and challenging context. This calls for twofold re-contextualization of CLLT: on the one hand, a renewed understanding of China and Chinese in a globalizing world and, on the other hand, an up-to-date pedagogical toolkit to adjust and deliver the CLLT curriculum as applied education. Both require a paradigmatic shift in terms of the “social turn” of CLLT in which communicative skills need to be placed at the heart of its provision. We illustrate educational challenges posed by this shift in concrete ways, using our own hogeschool as an example. We reflect on the operational potentials and constraints of moving into a communication-oriented curriculum from the perspectives of the teachers and the students. In a context of applied education, both teachers and students are required to adapt to new roles in an environment where the Chinese curriculum is more and more part of a larger integrated whole of formerly parallel learning lines.
Mr. Zhenxian Wang 孔子学院在汉语教育后发国家推广汉语的策略与实践-以塞浦路斯为例
在塞浦路斯大学孔子学院成立(2014年10月)以前,塞浦路斯的汉语教学基本上是空白。所以,我们称塞浦路斯是汉语教育后发国家。本文以塞浦路斯大学孔子学院成立两年来的工作实践为素材,论述了在汉语教育后发国家推广汉语要有目标国家的政治、经济、社会和文化大局观,要以汉语学生、教师和课程为着力点,要在政府部门、学校、公司机构和媒体四个微观层面发力的策略与实践,并指出在汉语教育后发国家推广汉语的关键是既要满足各方现有的汉语学习需求,更要激发各方的潜在学习需求。
Dr. Jue Wang-Szilas 中文初阶慕课:设计,实施与研究
《中文初阶慕课》是由法国国立东方语言文化学院在法国FUN (France Université Numérique) 慕课平台上首推的面向世界法语母语汉语学习者的慕课。《中文初阶慕课》旨在引导初学者进入汉语语言和文字的基础学习,帮助学习者发展个性化学习策略,“学会如何学习”像汉语这样的 “远距离语言和文字”,并籍此打开发现中国文化之门。该慕课在设计上遵循汉语语言的特殊性,承认其具有两个语言教学单位-字与词,并强调字与词在汉语启蒙教学阶段的重要性。同时课程设计针对性强,帮助法语母语汉语学习者逐一击破特殊困难点。学生通过观看视频讲座、测试、练习、游戏以及论坛互动等一系列教学和教辅活动来实现在线课程学习和互动。 该报告将对慕课的设计和实施情况进行详细说明,同时根据收集到的数据对学生的论坛互动进行研究和分析。
Mr. Yongbin Xia 爱尔兰中小学汉语教学调查报告
爱尔兰科克大学孔子学院现有100多个中小学汉语教学点,每年涉及学员数在7000人以上,80%以上是中学高一年级的学生;汉语目前还只是爱尔兰中学初中阶段的短期课程之一,但不是初中毕业或高中毕业必修课。从2013年开始每年发出学生调查问卷近1000多份,回收至少600份。随着调查问卷的数据不断积累和分析,从调查问卷中可以发现爱尔兰中小学教学的特点,每年也从教师的角度出发进行调查,从中发现教学管理规律,为进一步实施更合理的教学项目和采用何种教学方法提供必要的参考,也为能将汉语纳入爱尔兰教育系统做前期准备工作。
Dr. Chen Xiao Types of Errors in Acquiring Collocations by Chinese Learners in France, Causes and Teaching Strategies
Based on second language acquisition theories and an analysis of interlanguage materials found in the corpus, this paper explores the types and the causes of the errors in the students’ acquisition of collocations. Pedagogical strategies concerning the teaching of chinese collocations are thus put forward.
Dr. Honghua 红华 Xie 谢 汉语教师专业发展----日内瓦大学孔子学院五年经验反思
众所周知,目前欧洲汉语教学最大的问题是本土教师的质量问题。教师是改变汉语教学现状、通过教学水平、改善教学效果的最关键一环。日内瓦以及周边地区集中了近百名汉语教师,他们活跃在教学的第一线,担负着众多机构的各种类型的继续任务。
日内瓦大学孔子学院成立于2011年11月。作为一所具有独特风格的“研究型”孔院,从一开始,就把汉语教学方面的工作重点定位为教师的专业发展,并对专业发展的前期调查、需求分析、整体规划、培训形式、研讨会形式、其他相关项目等不同方面做了很多积极的尝试。本文通过对五年经历的回顾与反思,介绍我们对教师专业发展方面所积累的一些经验。
在大量专业汉语教师逐渐进入教学前沿的特殊时期,教师专业发展应该针对教师的素质、能力、需求、水平与教学实践来进行,结合“实用性”与“理论性”,顾及教学的方方面面。这是本土教师专业发展有效性与成功的基本保证。
Dr. Minjie Xing A Student-initiated Online Newspaper Reading Resource for Learning CFL
The availability and sophistication of web-based tools have triggered curiosity and creativity from language tutors as well as language learners. An online digital newspaper reading resource in Chinese, initiated and implemented by Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) students, is such as example. As an online graded reader, the newspaper provides HSK 1-6 levelled news content daily. The interactive features benefit CFL learners with synchronisation across platforms - website, iOS and Android, which can be used in the platforms of Apps, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, and Google play. The online newspaper now enjoys high popularity among CFL students across Europe, with 1.3k tweets, 1.1k followers, and 994 likes among thousands of users to date.
In the online newspaper, the archive can be filtered by category and by date or year, which makes it easy for readers to select articles to read. With the export functions to Pleco, Skritte, Memrise & Anki.function, readers can join any group and interact with each other. The word bank function enables readers to select from print, export or rename word group, and move or delete selected words, and the words are shown in simplified or traditional characters, pinyin, or English. Readers can browse the words to categorize according to how well they know the words or by degree of difficulty. What is more, through Q/A function, readers can get online feedback from the online tutors in the editing team, and readers can discuss the feedback in Webo, Wechat, and Facebook.
Data from online surveys and interviews revealed that students liked it for its visual attributes, usability, interactivity, support for reading comprehension and for the cultural associations and functionality. The articles were interesting, insightful and informative, in that from the content, readers could get the information that they were seeking to use directly for their functional purposes; and from the structure, readers obtained the meta-information about the content that facilitated the accessing, processing, and sharing of information. By browsing the resource daily, readers could have a general idea of what was going on in China, and in other parts of the world in Chinese.
The pedagogical implications are that the web-based online reading approach has the potential to promote understanding through increased reading practice, systematic thinking, and structured content, which has the potential to arouse student interest, enlarge and consolidate the vocabulary, enhance reading comprehension skills and enrich learning experience.
Dr. Hu Xinyu 中西文化交流是欧洲汉语学习者动机的重要组成部分
我们在多年教授中国语言与文化的过程中发现,中西文化交流是构成法国汉语学习者动机的重要组成部分。这种动机的成因不难解释,一来,时值今日,对年轻的大学生来说,学习中文和了解中国文化代表着非常有潜力的职业前景,二来,汉语学习者感觉他们自己也是这种双向交流在某种意义上的参与者。我们的发言围绕着一个系列中国文化课的设计而展开,主要从历史,经济贸易,文化交流以及与中国社会现实相关联等几个方面来阐述中国文化课程的设计,从内容到形式都以考虑汉语学习者的动机为出发点。总而言之,作为中国语言与文化的教授者和传播者,我们必须把汉语学习者的动机放在我们课程设计的首要位置。只有这样,我们课程的内容与形式才能与时俱进,受到学习者的欢迎。
Dr. Cui 崔 Xiuzhong 秀仲 《波黑汉语教学现状与对策探究》
东萨拉热窝大学是波黑唯一一所开设汉语系的高校,萨拉热窝大学孔子学院是目前唯一一所在波黑成立的孔子学院。本文基于东萨拉热窝大学汉语系和萨拉热窝大学孔子学院介绍了波黑汉语教学的基本情况(包括历史演变、课程设置、教材使用、HSK考点设置、留学情况等),分析了当前波黑汉语教学中存在的主要问题,并据此提出了解决对策和发展之道:培训和派遣师资;设置合理的课程体系;加强对波黑汉语教学的研究,以期对波黑的汉语教学起到一定的促进作用。
Ms. Jiajia Xu 《HSK标准教程》与hsk考试辅导的实际运用-----以匈牙利布达佩斯考文纽斯大学学生为例
本文通过笔者结合实际教学案例将从《HSK标准教程》(以下简称《教程》)与HSK考试辅导相结合的角度出发,以介绍《教程》 的结构设计与HSK考点的结合情况为核心,通过课堂教学实例以及笔者统计的HSK真题考点在教材中的复现率、词汇与话题的覆盖程度,对比初级(HSK1)与中高级(HSK4)学生的课堂学习模式,突出《教程》始于通过考试却非仅止于此的特色,旨在为欧洲汉语教师教学标准化提供新的教学素材,以及实用的HSK考试辅导方法,能在提高HSK通过率的同时又能真正的提升学生相应的汉语表达能力。
Ms. Zhen Yang 论第二语言教学中母语与目的语的交互作用 ————以汉语“和”与英语“and”为例
本文通过分析欧洲汉语第二语言学习者习得汉语语言项目“和”以及中国英语第二语言学习者习得“and”的表现,指出在第二语言的习得过程中,母语与目的语是交互作用的。这种交互作用在第二语言与母语的不同对应关系中可演变为正迁移和负迁移,第二语言教师应在充分把握这种两语言的不同类型的情况下,充分利用母语的正迁移作用,规避负迁移。
Ms. Lin Ye Chinese and Chinese Culture
1. The importance of Chinese culture
2. Learning Chinese by learning Chinese culture
3. The targets of Zi An Chinese school
Xie Yi 意大利学生汉语否定句偏误分析
意大利学生汉语否定句偏误分析

1, 否定句在汉语和意大利语中的定义,句型。
在否定句式上,汉语直接将否定词加到需要被否定的成分前面,而意 大利语则要借助助动词加Non来构成否定句。
Lui non ha(助动词“有” ) fame. 他不饿。
Noi non siamo(助动词“是”) sposati. 我们没有结婚。

2, 指出并分析在汉语否定副词"不/没"的使用中,意大利学生容易发生的几种偏误。

3, 指出并分析意大利学生对汉语否定结构的习得困难。
A.列举汉语否定结构并指出复杂程度。
B.比较意大利语与汉语否定句的差异。

4, 总结。以汉语—意大利语否定句型的对比来探讨汉语否定句教学的重点及难点,以及如何在课堂上提高汉语否定句教学的效率。
Ms. Wenying Yin lefebvre 法国汉语教师培训
已交
Mr. Jin'en Yu 民国时期基督徒的扫盲和现代印刷技术的发展对汉字教学的影响
民国时期基督徒在中国进行的扫盲活动探索了利用最短的事件向教民教授最基本汉字的有效途径,在字量的确定、字种的选择、教材的编辑和教学方法都有一些成功的经验。传教士在圣经及其相关材料的印刷方面为了便于高效编辑和排版印刷,在字量的确定和字种的选择方面,利用量化分析的方面,探索了一条科学途径。这些都为当今的汉语国际传播中的汉字教学提供了有效借鉴。
Dr. Lan Yue Congnition and Teaching of Measure word of Westerners in the 19th Century
Measure word is a specific part of speech in Chinese language. Back hundreds of years ago, westerners who came to China were keenly aware of the existence of measure word during the process of Chinese learning. Much intensive study in cognition and research of measure word has been launched in 19th century, which would be revealed through the emphasis of measure word in the Chinese language teaching materials. They named measure word in accordance with angles of either number or classification. Besides, more specific instructions had been made aiming at the classification and usage of measure word. Some effective methods had been adopted in the teaching and studying of measure word, which has been significant reference for teaching Chinese as a foreign language today.
Dr. Chun Zhang Creating a TCFL Network within Nordic Universities: Action and Reflection
With the growth in learning Chinese as a foreign language (abbreviated into TCFL) in a global scale, there is a pressing need for universities to deliver high quality TCFL to the learners. This requires teachers to develop and to apply the latest knowledge within the field both theoretically and pedagogically. However, due to small size of Chinese study program and limited TCFL staff within Nordic universities, issues of TCFL teacher development have not been sufficiently addressed. To address this concern, this paper will focus on studying the case of the newly-established project entitled ‘NordNet TCFL 2016’ funded by Nordplus Higher Education. The project aims to enhance TCFL and strengthen CFL teacher network. During the project, CFL teachers from Aarhus University, Denmark; Stockholm University, Sweden and Oslo University, Norway conduct three ‘teacher mobility’ activities. Each activity entails visiting one or two partner universities, observing classes, and discussing methodological issues. The 1st activity took place on Oct. 17-18, 2016 at Stockholm University, Sweden. The 2nd activity took place on Oct. 27-28, 2016 Aarhus University, Denmark. The 3rd activity will take place in March, 2017 at Oslo University, Norway. During each activity, surveys are issued and questions are posed. The preliminary analysis from two completed activities and surveys show that three challenges face the growth of TCFL and professional development of teachers. (1) lacking research-based subject-didactic knowledge specific to TCFL to Danish, Swedish and Norwegian learners; (2) problematic focus on English-language CFL textbooks (i.e., Danish/Swedish/Norwegian-textbook on TCFL are needed); (3) little guidance on the ways to train local novice non-native speakers to become qualified CFL teachers. Finally, we offer suggestions for reconsidering TCFL teacher education in an effort to foster a research-based subject-& country-specific didactic education program, and call for establishing a permanent CFL teacher network.
Dr. Felicia Zhang DEVELOPING L2 LEARNERS' CHINESE READING ABILITY WITHOUT REQUIRING THEM TO LEARN TO WRITE CHINESE CHARACTERS----AN EXPLORATION
Abstract: A key issue being explored in this paper is whether it is possible to develop our L2 Chinese
learners’ Chinese reading ability without requiring them to write Chinese characters. This issue is of
genuine concern in a target language environment such as Taiwan where L2 learners have the need to
recognize complex characters in their environment but have found the task of learning to write very
difficult. This paper presents three case studies in L2 students learning Chinese in a target language
environment (Taiwan). The first case study outlines some of the conditions under which a curriculum
which does not focus on the writing of Chinese characters for reading purpose might be possible. Case
studies 2 and 3 outline how three L2 students learned Chinese themselves through a number of mobile
apps and how they decided not to learn Chinese characters. In the final part, the availability of Chinese
learning apps necessitated a rethinking of how the reading skill in Chinese could be developed. A
possible teaching intervention is proposed. The teaching intervention will be in a context of using the
somatically-enhanced approach in teaching Chinese (Zhang, 2006). Oral language will be taught using
active techniques such as humming, clapping, using gestures and so on. Character teaching
intervention will include a variety of teaching techniques such as raising L2 learners’ consciousness of
radicals and other ways of character creation. L2 students will also be exposed to reading passages
early in the course of their study. They are not required to write characters. The research on the
teaching intervention will collect data on L2 learners’ mid semester and end of semester oral and
written test performances; as well as conduct in-depth interviews with a number of students from
different language backgrounds. Interviews will be designed to explore the strategies and techniques
L2 learners used in learning Chinese characters on their own and their opinions on how Chinese
characters could be learned more efficiently in a target language environment such as Taiwan.
Keywords: Chinese characters, reading, writing Chinese characters
Introduction
Teaching Chinese in a Teaching Chinese as a Foreign language environment
Dr. George Zhang What is more effective in introducing Chinese characters to CFL beginners? A study of rote memorisation, delayed character introduction and character colour-coding
This is a co-authored paper and Caitríona Osborne will be the one to present.
The paper presents results of the investigation of four different methods in introducing Chinese characters to beginner learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). Approximately 98 learners aged 14–16 participated in the research and are divided into four groups. Three groups of participants are learning Chinese via one of the three approaches: rote memorization (Dehn, 2008; Greenberg, 2000), delayed character introduction (Chen, Wang & Cai, 2010; Ye, 2013) and character colour-coding (Dummit, 2008; Pleco, 2016). The fourth group of participants is used as a control group and has been taught with the usual mixed approach observed in five Irish higher institutions. Two formative evaluations were conducted to analyse the participants’ development in learning the character recall and recognition, as well as the use of characters. Previous research (e.g. Poole & Sung, 2015; Xu, Chang, Zhang & Perfetti, 2013; Tan, Spinks, Eden, Perfetti & Siok, 2005) in the area of CFL acquisition tends to focus on learners’ ability to recall characters, with less emphasis on the overall use of Chinese language. Therefore, the evaluations presented to the participants in this study not only focused on character recall and recognition, but also the ability to use Chinese language in communication. The evaluations consist of sections including: (1) dictation; (2) recognising and recalling characters; (3) cloze tests; (4) reordering sentences of a Chinese conversation and; (5) producing a text in describing a picture. The first formative evaluation was carried out after around four weeks’ teaching and the second one was conducted after another four weeks of teaching. Therefore, the results reported here reflect the effectiveness of each teaching method on the study of Chinese characters in the first eight weeks. The study reveals that rote memorisation seems to be the most effect method in helping CFL beginners in acquiring the individual characters, particularly the orthography of Chinese characters, however only in the early stages of learning CFL. Character colour-coding proved to be useful in the acquisition of character phonology and for learning the use of characters during the study. Although delayed character introduction was hypothesised to be effective in assisting learners to acquire the phonology and semantics of Chinese characters, this method did not show significant positive effects among CFL beginners in the early stage or later stage of character learning. The control group at first showed promising signs in terms of acquiring character use, however this did not continue over the course of the study. As this is an ongoing one-year project and the data collection will continue until May 2017, further analyses will be conducted to scrutinise these initial findings.
Keywords: Chinese language; Chinese as a foreign language; Language pedagogy
Dr. Haiying Zhang 面向欧洲大学汉学专业学生的汉字教学
本文将教学对象限定为欧洲大学汉学专业学生,从教学理念、教学方法、教学素材三方面论述欧洲大学这一专业学生的汉字教学问题,该文结构及主要观点如下:
一、关于汉字繁简取舍问题
先学繁体,后学简体,兼识繁简。
二、关于汉字认读及书写是否同步的问题
认读领先,书写随后。
三、汉字教学的重要途径
3.1 字源教学便于学生理解、记忆汉字
3.2 部件教学最为重要
四、关于两套代表性教材汉字教学内容的分析
《新实用汉语课本》、《中文听说读写》
五、尊重教材,适当调整补充,找出最佳汉字教学内容和方法
5.1适当补充字源教学内容。
5.2适当采纳或调整汉字具体部件的拆分。
5.3 中高级阶段适当补充形近字、多义字、同音字等练习。
5.4开设汉字文化选修课,供学生选择。
Hong Zhang 意大利孔子学院课程设置、特点与发展趋势
目前意大利暨圣马力诺共有13所孔子学院与33个孔子课堂

。课程设置主要有四类:孔院本部汉语课程、高中汉语必

修课、初高中与小学汉语兴趣班、大学的汉语专业课以及

汉语作为外语的通选课。其中较为突出的有三个方面的特

点:高中汉语课程试点项目成功开发出适合本地需求的中

文地理与中文历史课等课程;随着《意大利高中汉语课程

大纲》的颁布以及《中小学兴趣班课程大纲》的研制完成

使得中小学课程设置与管理更加科学规范;孔院本部与大

学汉语课程的商务汉语、法律汉语等专用汉语课程需求增

大 。未来在课程设置上除了加大对专用汉语的课程开发、

将各种形式的中国文化体验课程以及汉语师资培训纳入孔

院常规课程设置系统有利于孔院的可持续发展。
Ms. Meilan Zhang 欧洲汉语国际教育教材的模式创新与本土融合 ——以清末民初英国汉语教科书为例
清朝政府为了政治教化需要和实际语言生活需要,先后流行了两类官方教科书:一是康熙皇帝《圣谕》十六条(1670年)—雍正万言之文言文《圣谕广训》—《圣谕广训》训读、解说的白话体文本如王又朴之《圣谕广训衍》(1726年)、佚名之《圣谕广训直解》等;二是清朝较早刊行的一部大型满汉对照双语教材《清文指要》(百篇),使通汉语而满语生疏的旗人学习满语和满汉翻译。 这两类中国本土的教科书都在清末民初欧洲汉语教科书历史上写下光辉的一页。因缺乏汉语学习教材,威妥玛之前的19 世纪的西方人,把《圣谕广训》系列当作欧洲人学习汉语的教科书内容。纯翻译的文本有:俄文译本(1788)英国传教士米怜英译了圣谕十六条、《圣谕广训》、《圣谕广训衍》(1810)、意大利人晁德莅将《圣谕广训直解》翻译成汉语与拉丁文《Cursus Litteraturae Sinicae 》(双语的);法籍耶稣会士帛黎和C. de Bussy译成法语、葡萄牙人伯多禄译成葡萄牙语, 1904年的德文译本等多种译本。
Dr. Qi Zhang The comparison of characters compiled in the Graded and EBCL through an evaluation of two textbooks for teaching CFL (Chinese as a foreign language)
The study scrutinizes the Chinese characters of two reference works which are compiled by two groups of researchers: the Grade One of the Graded is funded by the Hanban which is the Confucius Institute Headquarters in P. R. China (http://www.hanban.edu.cn/), whereas the A1 and A2of the EBCL is funded by the European Council including a number of European scholars (http://ebcl.eu.com/). Both lists consist of characters that are set be acquired by CFL beginners. These two character lists are evaluated through an examination of two textbooks. New Practical Chinese Reader (Volume 1; NPCR 1 henceforth) and A Key to Chinese Speech and Writing (Volume I; KCSW 1 henceforth). NPCR 1 is estimated to be used in approximately 2,000 universities across the world (Tinnefeld-Yeh, 2014). It is written chiefly by a team of scholars from mainland China. The other textbook, KCSW 1, has been primarily used by schools and universities in France but have been known world-wide (Jian, 2012). NPCR 1 does not put a particular focus on Chinese characters and it introduces both characters and pinyin from the beginning. In contrast, KCSW 1 employs the character-based approach to emphasize the study of Chinese characters and pinyin is not introduced until a later stage. Despite the differences, both textbooks are set for the beginning learners of CFL.

The results show that a large number of characters from A1 of EBCL are represented in KCSW and NPCR (87.5% and 65% respectively). However, only 12.6% and 25% characters from A2 are included in KCSW and NPCR respectively. Furthermore, 57% characters from A2 are even not contained in either textbook. As both textbooks are for ab initio level, this finding indicates that the EBCL character list emphasizes the development in character acquisition at different levels of language proficiency (from A1 to A2). On the other hand, because of the large number of characters in the Graded 1 (i.e. 900), nearly 59% of characters from this list are not included in KCSW. Even though KCSW adopts a character-based teaching method and consequently priorities the acquisition of characters, 51% of the Graded 1 still cannot be found in KCSW. Therefore, the Graded 1 might be further divided in order to offer a clear guidance for character learning at different levels. The comparison of these two character lists will shed lights onto the use of each list for pedagogy and teaching material development.
Ms. Siyu Zhang 基于学习策略的英国中学汉语教材练习分析 ——以GCSE教材为例
GCSE是衡量英国中学生学习水平的重要评测体系,汉语教学在英国的发展,使得GCSE汉语考试人数不断增加。目前英国较广泛使用的GCSE教学用书有两套:《快乐汉语》系列教材及Edexcel考试委员会推出的系列教材(其中包括《进步》1、2两册和《Edexcel GCSE Chinese》)。
两套教材都是针对英国本土低龄学习者编写的成果,教材各环节的编写都能体现本土教学和低龄学习的特色,但二者在教材体例、练习编写等方面又体现出不同的编写理念。教材练习对学习者语言技能的发展和巩固起到关键作用。本研究从语言学习策略出发,分析两套教材的练习部分。通过考察两套教材练习的类型、数量及编排等问题,结合实例与数据分析,试图探究 教材的训练意图及其对英国本土教学环境下中学生汉语学习策略使用的影响,为GCSE改革后的英国中学汉语教材编写提供参考。
Ms. Liang Zhong 非目的语环境下罗马尼亚初级阶段汉语学习者学习动机研究
近年来,汉语热迅速席卷全球。越来越多的外国学生出于不同的动机开始学习汉语。动机是影响第二语言习得的重要心理因素。在非目的语环境的语言学习中,学习动机对学习效果的影响更为显著。因而本文采用问卷调查和个案访谈相结合的方法,以《汉语学习动机问卷》为调查工具,以Dornyei(1994)的三个动机层面理论为依据,从语言层面、学习者层面和学习情境层面对罗马尼亚丘克地区汉语水平为初级阶段且年龄均在12至18 岁之间的中学生,共192人的学习动机进行考察,并对性别、年龄、民族等个体因素与学习动机之间的关系进行分析。从而为制定相应的教学策略,提高教学和管理的质量和效率提供借鉴。
Dr. Minkang Zhou Chinese Language Teaching & Researching in Europe
The Chinese Language Teaching in Europe has more than one hundred years but the teaching situation is very diferente in each european country and it is interest and important to have a global view of this situation with academic and social anlysis and to do a comparative reflexion of the perspective and the developement of Chinese Language teaching in Europe.
In the Chinese teaching research field, we find that a lot of publication and articles, papers are from China mainland, Taiwan, Hongkong and how should we improve the european research of Chinese teaching. This paper will do analysis and suggestion in the Chinese teaching reseaarch field in Europe.
Ms. Ni Zhou 中级汉语听力教学中的跨文化意识 ——以帕兹玛尼天主教大学中级听力课为例
听力教学是对外汉语教学中的重要组成部分,是帮助学习者将语言知识成功运用于言语交际活动的前提条件。唯有准确获取并解码了对方提供的言语信息才有可能提供合理有效的反馈,从而使交际得以顺利进行。中级听力教学,与初级听力教学侧重基础知识教学不同,在训练学生准确获取信息的基础上开始较多地涉及文化内容,要求学习者能够理解对话的言外之意。在实际教学中,我们发现,中级学生虽然具备了一定程度的汉语语言知识,能够听懂对话中的字和句,但仍会出现练习结果不尽如人意的窘境。这不得不引起对外汉语教师的重视。
因此,本文将以跨文化交际理论为基础,结合作者在帕兹玛尼天主教大学的教学实践,探讨中级汉语听力教学中跨文化意识的重要性及如何在教学中提高学生的跨文化意识。