Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Abstracts

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Joël Bellassen Keynote speech 欧洲汉语教学学科建设
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Dr. Frine Beba Favaloro The teaching of Chinese culture in Italian secondary school. Challenges and opportunities.
Keywords:
Chinese language and culture teaching, knowledge models, discipline building stakeholders

Abstract:
As an academic subject, Chinese language teaching already had quite a long tradition in Italy. It was 1732 when the catholic Collegio de’ Cinesi officially opened a course of Chinese language, whereas the first academic chair of Far Eastern Languages was established in 1864 at the Institute of Higher Studies of Florence. Since then, the subject has gradually developed, until recent years, when it has entered a rapid development, thanks to an exponential increase in the number of learners and the introduction of the subject of Chinese language and culture as a school discipline at the secondary-education level, starting from 2003.
Following this development, the scientific world has consequently undertaken a process of rethinking the discipline, which is being carried out in cooperation with the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. A crucial contribution to this process comes from the production of reference materials, like language textbooks, and of documents aimed at institutional and scientific mediation, like the Syllabus for the Chinese language, edited in September 2016.
Based on the communicative approach, the Syllabus is targeted to Italian learners at the secondary education level. It presents competence descriptors, teaching themes, and lexicon inspired both by the European and the Chinese-relevant reference documents. The document also includes a section presenting culture content, scanned according to school years.
The culture section closely follows the national guidelines (“Indicazioni nazionali”), which also recommend analysis and confrontation activities that students can constantly carry out on texts and content. This last aspect is consistent in general with the most common approach to Chinese culture teaching in Italy that we noted both at the level of reference materials used in teachers’ lesson planning and at the level of classroom practice: an approach based on a model of knowledge transmission known as “knowledge collection” and implemented through the traditional teacher-centered lesson where there is little space for active learning and mobilization of cultural representation.
This shows that we are still far from developing that intercultural competence which is nevertheless considered a fundamental objective in official references documents for foreign language and culture teaching, both at the national and European level. Far from being an obstacle, this shortcoming in the development of the intercultural aspect in Chinese culture teaching is an opportunity to contribute not only to the ongoing renewal and improvement of the discipline of Chinese language and culture teaching in Italy, but also to foreign culture teaching which is overlooked and underestimated in foreign language and culture teaching in a general way.


Bibliography:
Ambrosini, Claudia, Elettra Casarin, Greta Colombo, Silvia Dolci, Stefania Enea, Paola Mangia, Debora Marzi, Erika Salodini, and Cosetta Tolu. Shuo Hanyu, xie Hanzi, 说汉语,写汉字, Parla e scrivi in cinese. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2016.
Antonucci, Davor, and Serena Zuccheri. L'insegnamento del cinese tra passato e presente. Rome: Edizioni Nuova Cultura, 2010.
Bellassen Joël. “La didactique du chinois et la malédiction de Babel. Émergence, dynamique et structuration d’une discipline.” Etudes chinoises Special issue (2010). Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.afec-etudeschinoises.com/IMG/pdf/Bellassen_Didactique.pdf.
Favaloro, Frine Beba. “L’insegnamento della cultura cinese nell’istruzione secondaria. Osservazioni sullo stato dell’arte e costruzione disciplinare”. Atti del XV Convegno AISC, Macerata, September 24–26 2015 (not yet published)
Il sillabo della lingua cinese per le scuole secondarie di II grado. Accessed November 29, 2016. http:// http://hubmiur.pubblica.istruzione.it/web/istruzione/dettaglio-news/-/dettaglioNews/viewDettaglio/40811/11210
Indicazioni nazionali riguardanti gli obiettivi specifici di apprendimento concernenti le attività e gli insegnamenti compresi nei piani degli studi previsti per i percorsi liceali di cui all’articolo 10, comma 3, del decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 15 marzo 2010, n. 89, in relazione all’articolo 2, commi 1 e 3, del medesimo regolamento. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.indire.it/lucabas/lkmw_file/licei2010/indicazioni_nuovo_impaginato/_decreto_indicazioni_nazionali.pdf.
Masini, Federico, Tongbing Zhang, Gloria Gabbianelli, and Rui Wang. Women shuo Hanyu, 我们说汉语, Parliamo cinese. Rome: Hoepli, 2016.
Wang, Yan. “Les compétences culturelles et interculturelles dans l’enseignement du chinois par rapport au contexte secondaire français.” PhD diss., Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, to be discussed in 2017.
Dr. Zhiyan Guo Teaching Chinese as a third language in a British university: issues and problems
With the increasing awareness of the importance of teaching Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL), more and more higher education institutions in the UK developed their curricula to include Chinese in the University-wide Language Programme. Although some universities have offered Degrees in Chinese Studies where students learn the language from scratch, most universities tend to take very cautious steps towards the large-scale incorporation of Chinese into the mainstream curriculum. One of these steps are the creation of degree courses with Chinese as a minor language, that is, the component of Chinese takes up 25% of the whole degree programme, in addition to the other two European languages as their majors. The current study describes the course structure of the programme titled Bachelor of Arts in Modern Languages (BAML) that has been offered for the past three years in a British university, with the focus on how Chinese has been taught and how well the candidates have developed their language skills in speaking, listening, reading and writing. It discusses the issues and problems that the students have had in learning three foreign languages at the same time, with the two of them being from Ab initio, such as the arrangement in their Year of Study Abroad, the balance between language and culture components of the programme and the challenges students face in coping the intensive pace of learning Chinese as their third foreign language. The study also suggests that there are a lot yet to be done in the development of Chinese as a discipline in the UK and Europe in terms of curriculum design, quality assurance, effective teaching and assessment methods as well as the continual professional development of the teachers in order to be confident in both course delivery and assessment design.
Fang Jia 破解“难”题,彰显汉语魅力
“汉语难学”命题产生的的历史根源、语言学分析及教学对策。
Ms. Wanting Li 民国时期来华欧洲人的汉语研究与教学活动
一个成熟的学科一般都由理论和历史两部分构成, 前者确定学科的基本范畴,后者梳理学科形成的过程。一个没有自己学术史的学科肯定不是一个完整的学科。欧洲汉语教学有着悠久的历史,既包括来华欧洲传教士、外交官等汉语教学研究的历史,也包括欧洲本土汉语教学的历史。目前学界关于这些历史的研究比较零散,缺乏整体性,尤其是在中国进行的汉语教学活动,为欧洲本土汉语学习储备了师资及教学力量,是欧洲汉语教学史中很重要的一部分,极易被忽略。本文主要从汉语教学的角度梳理民国时期来华欧洲人的汉语研究、教材编写、办学培训等活动,以使我们对这一时期欧洲汉语教学有一个初步的认识,以期对学科史进行补充,使学科建设更加完善。
Mr. Fang Pan 从英美汉语教学的比较看欧洲汉语教学的发展方向
在世界汉语教学上,许多成功的汉语教学理念和方法往往借鉴了美国的一些实践。从赵元任那一代的老前辈开始,美国的汉语常常走在前列。这其中不乏有着根本原因。本文想要探讨的就是根据笔者在美国高等院校及一些美国著名的暑期强化项目中几年的教学经验,主要通过以下四个方面:美国汉语教学理念的历史性、美国大学汉语课程的性质与安排、在美汉语教师的授课形式及培训、美国汉语教学的方法与研讨等,对比本人目前在英国高校汉语教学的实践,从中分析两者在汉语教学上的异同与优劣,并由此提供一些汉语教学的建议,最后展望汉语教学在欧洲可能可以发展的方向。
Ms. Luisa Maria Paternicò Evaluation of some difficulties in applying the CEFR’s competence levels to Chinese language
Every year in Europe, Chinese language courses are increasingly becoming part of the curricula in universities and schools. Even though many claim to refer to European standards, an officially recognized standard does not exist. For European languages, there is an officially accredited reference framework. The Council of Europe created it with the aim to establish definitions of linguistic competences divided into levels together with the criteria to assess them. The landscape of Chinese language teaching in Europe, on the other hand, is inconsistent. It is, however, quite inconvenient that each single institution of each single European country proceeds independently from the others; this can have many disadvantages and can negatively affect student mobility.
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) is a descriptive system used to scale the abilities acquired by those who study a European foreign language. It was developed by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project Language Learning for European Citizenship between 1989 and 1996.
The European project European Benchmarking Chinese Language (EBCL) has recently proposed a definition of the competence levels for Chinese language based on the Common European Framework of Reference. The project was launched in London in November 2010 and ended with the Brussels Symposium in October 2012. The descriptors prepared by the EBCL project concern levels A1 and A2 of the CEFR (five EBCL levels: A1.1, A1, A1+, A2, A2+). The work for level B1 was drafted with the hope that further funding will make it possible to complete the work. A total of 243 descriptors were created together with a series of supporting documents belonging to the CEFR competence range: a list of themes and topics, a list of language functions and lists of Chinese characters and lexical units for the proposed levels. This work might lead in the future to a to a reform of todays’ syllabi, textbooks and teaching approach in general.
However, while working at the drafting of syllabi for Chinese language courses in Italy at university and high school levels, some problems aroused in matching the CEFR/EBCL competence scales with the actual teaching situation and requirements. This study will present an overview on the main difficulties in applying the European scales to the case of Chinese language and will try to suggest possible solutions to the problem.
Dr. Richard Trappl The significance of Chinese language education in Europe in the 21st Century
Regarding the growing importance of China today as well as the strategic relation between Europe and China in the complex context of the beginning of the 21st century, it is extremely important to raise the awareness in Europe for China, its culture and language, in order to contribute toward a better intercultural and political understanding.
Ms. Dongshuo Wang A Student-initiated Online Newspaper Reading Resource for Learning CFL
The availability and sophistication of web-based tools have triggered curiosity and creativity from language tutors as well as language learners. An online digital newspaper reading resource in Chinese, initiated and implemented by Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) students, is such as example. As an online graded reader, the newspaper provides HSK 1-6 levelled news content daily. The interactive features benefit CFL learners with synchronisation across platforms - website, iOS and Android, which can be used in the platforms of Apps, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, and Google play. The online newspaper now enjoys high popularity among CFL students across Europe, with 1.3k tweets, 1.1k followers, and 994 likes among thousands of users to date.
In the online newspaper, the archive can be filtered by category and by date or year, which makes it easy for readers to select articles to read. With the export functions to Pleco, Skritte, Memrise & Anki.function, readers can join any group and interact with each other. The word bank function enables readers to select from print, export or rename word group, and move or delete selected words, and the words are shown in simplified or traditional characters, pinyin, or English. Readers can browse the words to categorize according to how well they know the words or by degree of difficulty. What is more, through Q/A function, readers can get online feedback from the online tutors in the editing team, and readers can discuss the feedback in Webo, Wechat, and Facebook.
Data from online surveys and interviews revealed that students liked it for its visual attributes, usability, interactivity, support for reading comprehension and for the cultural associations and functionality. The articles were interesting, insightful and informative, in that from the content, readers could get the information that they were seeking to use directly for their functional purposes; and from the structure, readers obtained the meta-information about the content that facilitated the accessing, processing, and sharing of information. By browsing the resource daily, readers could have a general idea of what was going on in China, and in other parts of the world in Chinese.
The pedagogical implications are that the web-based online reading approach has the potential to promote understanding through increased reading practice, systematic thinking, and structured content, which has the potential to arouse student interest, enlarge and consolidate the vocabulary, enhance reading comprehension skills and enrich learning experience.
Dr. Minjie Xing A Student-initiated Online Newspaper Reading Resource for Learning CFL
The availability and sophistication of web-based tools have triggered curiosity and creativity from language tutors as well as language learners. An online digital newspaper reading resource in Chinese, initiated and implemented by Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) students, is such as example. As an online graded reader, the newspaper provides HSK 1-6 levelled news content daily. The interactive features benefit CFL learners with synchronisation across platforms - website, iOS and Android, which can be used in the platforms of Apps, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, and Google play. The online newspaper now enjoys high popularity among CFL students across Europe, with 1.3k tweets, 1.1k followers, and 994 likes among thousands of users to date.
In the online newspaper, the archive can be filtered by category and by date or year, which makes it easy for readers to select articles to read. With the export functions to Pleco, Skritte, Memrise & Anki.function, readers can join any group and interact with each other. The word bank function enables readers to select from print, export or rename word group, and move or delete selected words, and the words are shown in simplified or traditional characters, pinyin, or English. Readers can browse the words to categorize according to how well they know the words or by degree of difficulty. What is more, through Q/A function, readers can get online feedback from the online tutors in the editing team, and readers can discuss the feedback in Webo, Wechat, and Facebook.
Data from online surveys and interviews revealed that students liked it for its visual attributes, usability, interactivity, support for reading comprehension and for the cultural associations and functionality. The articles were interesting, insightful and informative, in that from the content, readers could get the information that they were seeking to use directly for their functional purposes; and from the structure, readers obtained the meta-information about the content that facilitated the accessing, processing, and sharing of information. By browsing the resource daily, readers could have a general idea of what was going on in China, and in other parts of the world in Chinese.
The pedagogical implications are that the web-based online reading approach has the potential to promote understanding through increased reading practice, systematic thinking, and structured content, which has the potential to arouse student interest, enlarge and consolidate the vocabulary, enhance reading comprehension skills and enrich learning experience.
Hong Zhang 意大利孔子学院课程设置、特点与发展趋势
目前意大利暨圣马力诺共有13所孔子学院与33个孔子课堂

。课程设置主要有四类:孔院本部汉语课程、高中汉语必

修课、初高中与小学汉语兴趣班、大学的汉语专业课以及

汉语作为外语的通选课。其中较为突出的有三个方面的特

点:高中汉语课程试点项目成功开发出适合本地需求的中

文地理与中文历史课等课程;随着《意大利高中汉语课程

大纲》的颁布以及《中小学兴趣班课程大纲》的研制完成

使得中小学课程设置与管理更加科学规范;孔院本部与大

学汉语课程的商务汉语、法律汉语等专用汉语课程需求增

大 。未来在课程设置上除了加大对专用汉语的课程开发、

将各种形式的中国文化体验课程以及汉语师资培训纳入孔

院常规课程设置系统有利于孔院的可持续发展。