Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Abstracts

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Hua Bai 浅析19世纪意大利汉语教材
19世纪意大利汉语教材研究可分为两个不同阶段,以1861年3月17日,即意大利的建国之日为切点:之前没有自己独立的国家教育体制,导致汉语教学星星点点;而国家统一造就了平和的教育环境,中国人首次授聘于意大利教育部下属机构——那不勒斯的一所东方学校,编写并出版了首批中文阅读教材,随后出版了第一本中文口语教材。从此,语法与口语并进的汉语教学模式延续至今。
Mr. Sven Bosch Chinese language learning and teaching in Dutch-speaking universities: contexts and challenges
In this presentation, we aim to offer an analytical sketch of the contexts and challenges of Chinese language learning and teaching (CLLT) in Dutch-speaking universities, focusing on “hogescholen”: universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands and Flemish Belgium. We locate CLLT in important and transitional contexts. CLLT has been an integral part of the long and rich disciplinary tradition of Sinology and China Studies in Dutch-speaking universities, notably in Leiden (NL) and Leuven (BE) where CLLT serves as an important means to access and advance knowledge about China/Chinese as a distinct geographic, cultural and racial/ethnic entity. Like in some other European higher education, CLLT falls within the paradigm of Regional Studies and the training of scientific intellectuals par excellence, with a particular perception on the function and pedagogy of (Chinese) language. Recently CLLT began to emerge as a new subject in “hogescholen”, as an extension and supplement to traditional university education and, more, as a response to the need to provide highly trained professional workers with practical skills and knowledge (notably multilingual intercultural business communication) that are relevant and applicable to contemporary socioeconomic contexts. The “applied” nature and the “bestaansrecht” (the right of existence) required of CLLT provision by educational policies and realities places CLLT in a new and challenging context. This calls for twofold re-contextualization of CLLT: on the one hand, a renewed understanding of China and Chinese in a globalizing world and, on the other hand, an up-to-date pedagogical toolkit to adjust and deliver the CLLT curriculum as applied education. Both require a paradigmatic shift in terms of the “social turn” of CLLT in which communicative skills need to be placed at the heart of its provision. We illustrate educational challenges posed by this shift in concrete ways, using our own hogeschool as an example. We reflect on the operational potentials and constraints of moving into a communication-oriented curriculum from the perspectives of the teachers and the students. In a context of applied education, both teachers and students are required to adapt to new roles in an environment where the Chinese curriculum is more and more part of a larger integrated whole of formerly parallel learning lines.
Ms. Miriam Castorina Works of grammar from the Chinese College at Naples in the 19th century: a descriptive analysis
Two years before the establishment of the first academic teaching of Chinese language at the Collège de France (1814) entrusted to Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788-1832), the Napoleonic government set in Naples transformed the almost one-century old “Chinese College” into a sort of high school, naming it Special school of Chinese. Up to this time and despite the intention of the founder Matteo Ripa (1682-1746), the teaching and learning of the Chinese language had been very scanty and fragmentary. Even though the British government resolved to ask Naples for two pupils to serve as interpreters for Lord Macartney’s Embassy (1792), Chinese language teaching, however, was not continual nor systematic. Thus, during the French decade (1806-1815), the “Special school of Chinese” needed to build a much more organic teaching method and, in order to do so, it was necessary to compile some teaching material.
The aim of the paper is to illustrate and describe in detail two works of Chinese grammar written to respond to this need respectively entitled De Lingua Sinensi (anonymous) and Zhongguo zi. Gramatica chinese fatta per uso della scuola speciale istallata nel Collegio de’ Chinesi in Napoli da Gennaro Filomeno Maria Terres allievo della suddetta scuola, 1813 (Chinese grammar for use at the special school of the Chinese College in Naples by Gennaro Filomeno Maria Terres, pupil of the above-mentioned school). These two works of grammar are quoted in some works but they have never been studied or described. The paper therefore aims to illustrate them, to put forward some hypotheses on the author of De Lingua Sinensi based on textual evidence and will trace a link that connects Italian Chinese language teaching to French Sinology.
Congyun 丛耘 Chen 陈 标题:华文教育中教室文化功能的解读(中文)
由于华文教育的特殊性,如何通过教室的环境来传递中国古老的文化,可从以下几方面去解读:一、团结凝聚功能。华裔学生来自于各个国家,语言不同、社会习俗不同,要想成为有凝聚力的先进集体。一个良好的教室环境和氛围布置不可缺少。二、教育导向功能。古代教室文化的教育导向功能摆在首要位置,朱熹题在白鹿洞书院的“忠、孝、廉、节”就是典型的以教育导向为主的教室标语。三、规范警示功能。为了教育学生,教室里的布置时时提醒每一位学生要为自己的行为负责,自律、自信、自强。四、美育调适功能。窗明几净的教室,置身于其中会令人感到心胸舒畅;典雅大方的布置,置身于其中会令人恬静踏实;热情奔放的装饰,又会让人生机勃勃。五、文化传承传播功能。人类文化史证明,弘扬中华优秀文化,是对人类文化的重大贡献。教室文化也正发挥着它的独特的功能。
Dr. Junling Ding Based on Vocabulary Size of Chinese in Steps and It’s Corresponding Chinese Proficiency 基于词汇量表的《步步高中文》与语言水平等级
词汇是语言的基础,词汇量被认为是衡量语言水平的一个重要指标。本文采用计算机检索辅以人工筛选和校对,对伦敦华语教学出版社出版的三册《步步高中文》中的词汇与HSK六个级别总词汇量进行重合率统计和分析,基于词汇量,对《步步高中文》与HSK等级进行了对应。

《步步高中文》主要应用于大学汉语学习者,对《步步高中文》与GCSE词汇大纲重合率的统计,指出GCSE的对应梯级应该是《步步高中文》第三册。

随着欧洲汉语教学的发展,本文也对《步步高中文》的词汇与“欧洲汉语能力基准项目”(EBCL)提供的词表进行了重合率统计。

虽教材的选择并不以语言测试的词汇大纲为依据,但确定教材词汇量与汉语水平等级的对应关系,对学生学习时长、班级选择、学习信心、成绩评估、水平测试具有重要的参照意义。
Ms. Claudia Friedrich -- Will be decided during the next days! --
-- Will be given during the next days after the final decision! --
Dr. Lixia Guo 通过比较学习词汇和语法 ——英国来华传教士鲍康宁的教学理念
鲍康宁的《英华合璧》(1878)是一部优秀的汉语教材,出版后50年内修订和再版达到14版,包含着鲍康宁重要的汉语教学理念,其中通过比较学习的思路尤为突出,既包括词语和语法的对比,也包括语用的对比。
词语的比较既包括汉英对比,如Old与“老/旧”,也包括汉语近义词的对比,如帮忙/帮补/帮助。
语法方面对量词、结果补语等予以了充分的重视,也对语法范畴如比较、假设等进行了对比,同时还比较了近义虚词,如“才/就”等。语用方面比较了称呼法、姓名和年龄的异同等。
鲍康宁的《英华合璧》是针对西方人的汉语教材,套用西方语法体系的痕迹非常明显,但是其体系对西方人来说“自然且简便”,至今仍有较高的借鉴价值。
Dr. Anett Kozjek-Gulyás The problems posed by CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) in the Chinese language Matura exam in Hungarian secondary schools.
The demand for learning Chinese has grown as economic and cultural relationships has improved. This is shown by the increase in the number of students learning Chinese as a foreign language and the number of institutions supporting that. This has had a positive impact on the development of the professional background of Chinese language teaching. Thanks to the language teaching strategy of the government, students can choose Chinese as the first option for a foreign language in secondary schools.
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages was published in English in 2001 and then in Hungarian in 2002. It provides a foundation for the development of foreign language curriculums, examinations and textbooks. The level descriptions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) have received a lot of criticism since it is the most difficult to apply them to the Chinese language. The description of the grammatical structures and communicative purposes have made the level description specifically developed for Chinese more detailed and more specific.
The presentation highlights the difficulties posed by the requirements of CEFR for Chinese language examinations through the specific components and tasks of the Chinese language Matura examination – difficulties that are very difficult to surmount owing to the peculiar characteristics of the Chinese language.
Ms. Yuliya Kuznetsova The four year system of Chinese teaching in Institute of Asian and African Studies (IAAS) of Moscow State University
Institute of Asian and African Studies (IAAS) of Moscow State University along with the Oriental Faculty of St. Petersburg State University are the two main academic centers in Russia focusing on a wide scope of oriental studies. Both of them have a long tradition dating back to the mid of the ХIХth century when the reaserch techniques and language teaching foundation was laid.
IAAS (established in 1972) – one of the higher educational establishment of Oriental studies in Russia – has gradually developed its own approach to students training in the required field, striking a balance between maintaining a sufficient emphasis on academic research and giving students practical tools to enter the world of an everyday conversational language.
The department of Chinese philological studies being the largest structural unit in IAAS welcomed new changes when Moscow State University entered the Bologna Process, the key point of the paper is to present the 4 year bachelor system in terms of Chinese language teaching, while here in the abstract the main idea of every academic year is outlined briefly.
The concept of “Chinese made easy” though is duly respected but not implemented at the department, the strategy of individual time and personal effort investment is at the core of the system. With 16 hours of Chinese lessons a week and two teachers – Russian and Chinese in close cooperation (this cooperation pattern is preserved until the 4th grade) – the effect of the language immersion is achieved. An analytical approach is in favour when grammar rules, syntactic structures are brought out and reinforced mostly through Russian/Chinese translation exercises throughout the first year.
The need to accelerate teaching Chinese process makes teachers put the language in a wider realm of cultural space. The 2nd year brings to light a vast amount of reading materials concerning Chinese culture and History (the main subjects are Translation techniques and Conversational Chinese making up 14 hours a week) and in terms of vocabulary idiomatic expressions are put into the foreground. This approach enables IAAS students to successfully take HSK 4 exams in the middle of the 2nd year.
The 3d and 4th grades (12 hours each) are designed to make students get acquainted with mass media rhetoric represented in Chinese news (for this purpose internet resources and print publications are used) and in general to make them feel at home linguistically in discussing socio-political topics. Bilingual translation still remains the focal point at this stage. Chinese and Russian teachers both work hand in hand to train linguistic intuition and analytical skills in students.
Dr. Ying Li 意大利大学中的商务汉语教学 —商务汉语教材,专业设置及商务汉语教学实践
近年来,在意大利对于掌握商务汉语人才的需求与日俱增。针对这种需求,出现了在意大利本土编写的商务汉语教材; 在意大利的一些大学中,也开设了商务汉语课程。
本文重点探讨两本在意大利编写、出版的商务汉语教材---《实用经贸汉语口语(Business in Cina)》和《说汉语,谈生意(Cinese &affari)》,比较两本教材的侧重点及使用情况。
同时,也分析在意大利大学中开设商务汉语课程的专业,例如威尼斯大学的"东亚语言、文化与社会专业",基耶蒂-佩斯卡拉大学的"针对企业,国际合作的外语专业"以及都灵大学的"亚非语言与文明专业"。
在文章的最后介绍在意大利学习商务汉语课程的学生所进行的社会实践。
Dr. Li Long The Development and Problems of Chinese Teaching in Norway:A case study on Confucius Institute of Bergen挪威汉语教学的发展与问题——以卑尔根孔子学院为例
1966年起,挪威奥斯陆大学就有了中文课,但是中文教学并未受到挪威社会的重视。直到2007年卑尔根大学学院、卑尔根中国协会和卑尔根大学与北京体育大学合作建立了挪威第一家也是唯一的一家孔子学院,即卑尔根孔子学院。孔子学院的建立标志着汉语教学进入了系统、快速发展的新阶段。2008年-2016年,卑尔根孔子学院的学习汉语的人数从68人发展到739人。
在这大规模发展的8年时间里,汉语教学也遇到了一些亟待解决的问题,例如:如何有效地在汉语教学中贯彻挪威素质教育的理念;如何在教学中因材施教,不放弃任何一名学业成就较低的学生;如何编制出具有国别化特色又符合挪威外语标准的系列教材及教辅;教师如何适应挪威教育文化等问题。这些问题在一定程度上制约着挪威汉语教学的质量提高与规模的进一步提升。通过对以上问题的思考,本研究提出了一些建议。
Dr. Wei Lun Lu 試論中東歐二線以下城市的華僑中文教學:以捷克布爾諾的華僑學校為例
本文旨探討在中東歐二線以下城市的華僑中文教學所遇到的挑戰及可能的克服方法。

中東歐為較晚近華僑開始移入之地,因此華僑人口不似西歐國家或英美龐大。相較之下,要以西歐國家的規模及範式發展華僑學校極為困難。諸多難處首先包括第一、師資難尋。師資來源的首要問題為家長職業,因在華僑稀少的狀況下,祖籍為中國之家長職業多為經營中餐館,祖籍台灣的家長多為台商公司外派幹部,因此兩類族群皆每日工作時間極長、年工作日數亦極高。在此狀況下,雖有意栽培第二代學習中文,大部分當地華僑都難於工作之餘抽出時間經營僑校。第二、華裔學生數量極少。學生人數自然受限於華僑總人口數,而此問題於首都以外的小城市更為明顯。蓋華僑有群聚傾向,故多移入首都。在華僑人口稀少的狀況下,難以有規模的方式經營僑校。

本文將以捷克布爾諾市新近成功發展的小型華僑學校為例,提出一套未來可供中東歐二線以下城市發展的模型以克服上述問題。
Dr. Joooeck Maeng 汉字文化圈汉语词汇学习的特点
汉字文化圈的汉语教学有其共性,但是由于汉字文化圈的范围比较广,所以各个国家的具体情况也有一些出入。本文以韩国学习者为对象探讨汉语词汇学习的特点。

韩语和汉语不是同一个语系的语言,所以句法上有较大的差异,以语言之间的距离来说,韩国人学汉语应该有较大的难度。但是由于在词汇学习方面有一定的优势,所以总的来讲学习效果比较好。

词汇学习上的优势源于韩汉两语之间的语言接触和交融。韩国自引进汉字以来,长期把汉字当做记录书面语言的工具,同时使用大量的汉源词(汉语词汇+用汉字造的词)。韩国从二十世纪中期采用"韩文专用"的政策,目前在日常生活中几乎不使用汉字(这种情况类似于越南,有别于日本),这是对书面形式而言的,实际上仍然有大量的汉源词在使用。这些汉源词是韩语词汇系统中的主要组成部分。

韩国学习者在汉语词汇学习上所占的优势是能够运用汉字素养。韩国学习者在开始学汉语之前已有一定的汉字素养,这汉字素养是间接形成的,虽然他们不直接用汉字书写,但是通过大量的使用汉源词的经验,不知不觉间积累了跟汉字有关的知识,进而归纳出一些音节音所代表的语素义。这在入门阶段有比较大的积极作用,但是到了中高级以上水平也会有一些消极作用。韩国学习者的汉字素养引起正迁移和负迁移。正迁移是开始的时候对汉语学习有帮助的,由于过度泛化的心理因素,人们对正迁移作用的估计过高,也会对后续的学习埋下隐患。负迁移,顾名思义,是有负面影响的现象,一般是学习进度到了中级课程以后出现的多,但是多数学习者对负迁移注意不足,心理上的懈怠更成为问题的根源。
Ms. Evgenia Mitkina Social and Political Text Teaching at the SPBU
Translation of social and political texts is a part of the program of Chinese language course taught at the Department of Chinese philology of the SPBU. It is introduced in the first semester of the third course, when students return from China after language study course.
The subject of this course is represented by newspaper texts, speeches of the head and top officials of China and political documents. The materials are usually taken from web versions of the leading newspapers “People’s Daily” (人民日报), “GuangmingDaily” (光明日报), as well as from news portals – such as, for example, the Xinhua News Agency’s website. Choice of a social and political text is important, but involves certain difficulties. The majority of modern textbooks do not meet the objectives of such course. Therefore, articles exactly from the Internet have to be used predominantly – first, because the most up-to-date information can be found there; second, it provides a wide range of social and political texts.
Topics of such texts are political systems and government structure, elections, visits, meetings, negotiations, agreements, the UN Charter, environment, globalization, terrorism, Russia and NATO, nuclear disarmament, dangerous diseases, natural disasters, economic relations, as well as any other topic related to the current political situation in the world.
Lessons are usually arranged as follows:
1. Reading the text aloud sentence by sentence sequentially. First, this facilitates remembering the way characters should be read; second, trains pronunciation.
2. Translation of read sentences along with analysis of all encountered patterns and constructions.
3. Singling out those patterns and constructions that have multiple occurrences in such texts.
4. Repetition of previously learnt constructions and patterns (dictations, interpreting from Russian to Chinese and from Chinese to Russian in oral and written form).
The main difficulties students face when translating social and political texts are:
1. Inaptitude for seeing constructions;
2. Inability to isolate interrelated elements;
3. Translation of official capacities and names of organizations;
4. Translation of the newest terms that cannot be found in dictionaries.
One of the course objectives is to solve these difficulties, to develop the ability to overcome them.
In the process of study, multimedia equipment (presentations, run of news items, etc.) is used.
Kayoko Okumura 19世纪欧洲人的汉语学习和英语课本的影响-以收录词汇和分类方法为主要研究对象-
英国人罗伯聃编纂的《华英通用杂话》(1843年)和《华英通语》(1855年以后)等是为了中国人的英语学习编写的课本,但是这些课本不仅是为中国人的英语课本,而且对欧洲人来说是可以当做汉语课本学习汉语的课本,可以说具有英语课本和汉语课本的两侧面的语言教材。值得注意的是;编写这些课本的时候,先有汉语后有英语,这说明编写这些课本要有一定的汉语水平。我们可以认为这些课本是在欧洲人学习汉语经验的基础上编写的。本文以《华英通用杂话》和《华英通语》等英语课本和有关资料为主,主要对收录的词汇和分类方法进行调查,研究英语课本对汉语课本的影响。
Ms. Can Qi 马若瑟的汉语观研究 ——以《汉语札记》为中心
早期耶稣会士在西方人汉语学习与研究的历史上扮演了重要角色,他们编写的各种汉语学习的教材与研究著作也为后来人提供了可依据的材料。马若瑟(Joseph de Prémare,1666-1736)即是早期来华耶稣会士中的杰出代表,他对于中国语言及文学都有着深入了解,一生著述颇丰。该书努力跳出拉丁语法体系,从汉语自身特征出发,同时对汉语官话及文言进行研究,对后世产生了深远影响。本文针对《汉语札记》(Notitia Linguae Sinicae,1728)中马若瑟的描述,分析其对汉语的认识。
Mr. Bin Qian 面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)
面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)



摘要:汉语教学界长期存在“重精读,轻泛读”的问题,海外学习者课外的语言输入不足的问题尤为突出。鲁健骥(2002)、赵金铭(2006)等认为大力加强泛读课程的建设是对外汉语教学的当务之急,尤其是要编写大量供泛读使用的读物。

随着《中文天天读》、《汉语风》等一批分级读物问世,学习者泛读材料的选择日渐丰富。但分级读物的知晓度如何,具体需求有哪些等问题都有待调查。针对这些问题,我们设计了调查问卷,通过对英、法等国百余位汉语教师的调查得到相关数据,希望通过数据分析能得出有益于汉语分级读物开发、修订以及评估方面的参考性结论。
Mr. Bin Qian 面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)
面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)



摘要:汉语教学界长期存在“重精读,轻泛读”的问题,海外学习者课外的语言输入不足的问题尤为突出。鲁健骥(2002)、赵金铭(2006)等认为大力加强泛读课程的建设是对外汉语教学的当务之急,尤其是要编写大量供泛读使用的读物。

随着《中文天天读》、《汉语风》等一批分级读物问世,学习者泛读材料的选择日渐丰富。但分级读物的知晓度如何,具体需求有哪些等问题都有待调查。针对这些问题,我们设计了调查问卷,通过对英、法等国百余位汉语教师的调查得到相关数据,希望通过数据分析能得出有益于汉语分级读物开发、修订以及评估方面的参考性结论。
Mr. Bin 彬 Qian 钱 面向欧美本土学习者的汉语分级读物需求调查(教师卷)
摘要:汉语教学界长期存在“重精读,轻泛读”的问题,海外学习者课外的语言输入不足的问题尤为突出。鲁健骥(2002)、赵金铭(2006)等认为大力加强泛读课程的建设是对外汉语教学的当务之急,尤其是要编写大量供泛读使用的读物。

随着《中文天天读》、《汉语风》等一批分级读物问世,学习者泛读材料的选择日渐丰富。但分级读物的知晓度如何,具体需求有哪些等问题都有待调查。针对这些问题,我们设计了调查问卷,通过对英、法等国百余位汉语教师的调查得到相关数据,希望通过数据分析能得出有益于汉语分级读物开发、修订以及评估方面的参考性结论。
Ms. Lola Rakhimbekova Training of qualified Chinese-Russian Translators and Interpreters in Russia: yesterday and today
The teaching of Chinese language in Russia has a long history, but for a long time it was mainly for research purposes: students studied Chinese ancient philosophy, history and literature, training of oral interpreters, for example, was given little attention. Today, however, in accordance with the increasing economic and political status of People’s Republic of China, a sharp rise in Russian-Chinese trade relations, economic and humanitarian cooperation etc., a lot of Russian companies established business contacts with Chinese partners, Chinese business’ presence in Russia becomes more than visible, numerous conferences with the participation of Chinese partners are held annually in different cities of Russia. As a result the need for specialists in Chinese language able to provide a qualified written, oral and simultaneous translation from Chinese into Russian and from Russian into Chinese increased significantly.
The report describes the specificities of Moscow Linguistic University’ Translation and Interpretation Graduate Program, focuses on the methods used in teaching students translation and interpretation, also accentuates the difficulties faced by native Russian students in the process of mastering the techniques of the Chinese-Russian and Russian-Chinese translation and interpretation.
Dr. Liu Ruo-mei History on learning in Russia in the past, 中俄语言交流:以历史上俄罗斯人的汉语学习为中心
本发言将从三个方面——着眼于学术文化发展的中俄早期语言交流、着眼于中俄交往实际需要的以驻华东正教使团为中心的中俄语言交流、历史上中俄语言交流的成果,系统梳理俄国汉语教学的历史,并针对历史上俄罗斯人汉语教学的重要机构、教材、成就等展开深入研究,追踪俄罗斯人汉语教学的传统,分析中俄两国文化发生碰撞、交流的基本过程。
Ms. Lihua Song 19世纪欧洲汉语教材中的中国小说及其当代教学启示
19世纪以后,受制于各种政治、文化目的,欧洲人学习汉语的热情十分高涨。这一时期来华的传教士、外交官等编纂了大量汉语教材,它们在内容上的一个显著变化是,选取中国古典小说作为汉语学习的内容成为一时风尚,并且编纂者为适应西方人学习汉语的要求以及时代变化,往往对其中收录的小说进行大刀阔斧的改动。马若瑟《汉语札记》(1729年成书,1831年初版)、罗伯聃《华英说部撮要》(1847)、威妥玛《语言自迩集》(1867)、晁德莅《中国文化教程》(1879-1882)、甲柏连孜《中国语法入门》(1883)、戴遂良《汉语入门》(1892)、禧在明《华英文义津逮》(1907)等都大量收录中国小说,作为汉语教学的语言素材,有助于学生在汉文化中学习汉语,对当代汉语教学颇多启示。
Mr. Xun Sun 从《语言自迩集》到《官话指南》
英国外交官威妥玛编纂的京音官话课本《语言自迩集》在汉语教学史上影响巨大,也曾深刻影响19世纪后期日本的汉语教材编纂和汉语教学。《亚细亚言语集(支那官话部)》、《总译亚细亚言语集(支那官话部)》、《(新校)语言自迩集》(兴亚会支那语学校,1880)和《参订汉语问答篇日语解》等汉语教材都是截取《语言自迩集》内容而成。明治九年,中田敬义在《语言自迩集》影响下编纂北京官话教材《官话指南》,该书反过来对西方人学习汉语产生影响,出现多个欧洲译本。本文拟通过考察从《语言自迩集》到《官话指南》之间的汉语教材,揭示欧洲与日本编纂汉语教材的相互影响和对话。
Dr. Keiichi Uchida 西洋传教士的汉语研究的虚实论和波尔·罗瓦雅尔语法
我们仔细观察西洋人的汉语研究,就会发现他们非常巧妙摄取了中国传统的“虚实论”。如马若瑟、艾约瑟、马礼逊等。我看西洋人之所以能摄取堪称中国人传统语言观的“虚实论”,应该说有一个原因,就是他们具备了“可以吸收的基本条件”,那就是欧洲的“波尔・罗瓦雅尔(Port-Royal)语法”。
 “波尔・罗瓦雅尔语法―普遍唯理语法”作为17-8世纪欧洲拉丁语规范语法受到了高度的评价,并对18-9世纪的英语语法产生了深远的影响。特别是那个系统的这样的看法:所谓句中的“主部”与“谓部”都属于第一个作用,都是“认识的对象”;而连接这两者的成分,即“系词”才是统括整体的“思考的形态与方式”。“ 思考的对象”就是“客体性表达”,“思考的形态与方式”正是“主体性表达(表示说话人心情的词)”。由此可见,这种语言观与中国的“虚实论”以及时枝诚记的“词辞论”如出一辙。我准备在这次大会上报告这些内容。
Ms. Jingru Wang 从波兰汉语教学研究看波兰汉语教学的发展 ——兼谈波兰汉语师资的培养
摘要
本论文尽可能地收集了公开发表的与波兰汉语教学有关的论文,主要讨论三个方面的问题:一、从纵向角度分析波兰汉语教学研究的发展,即波兰汉语教学研究的关注点是如何变化的,由此来分析波兰汉语教学与研究纵向发展的脉络;二、从横向角度进行分析,即在这些研究中,具体研究内容的类别有哪些,主要采用了哪些方法进行研究,哪些问题已经有了比较好的研究,哪些问题仍然有待研究;三、分析研究者的来源及身份、研究对象的地域及机构分布,并由此分析波兰汉语教学的发展进而讨论汉语师资来源及培养问题。
Xuan Wang Chinese language learning and teaching in Dutch-speaking universities: contexts and challenges
In this presentation, we aim to offer an analytical sketch of the contexts and challenges of Chinese language learning and teaching (CLLT) in Dutch-speaking universities, focusing on “hogescholen”: universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands and Flemish Belgium. We locate CLLT in important and transitional contexts. CLLT has been an integral part of the long and rich disciplinary tradition of Sinology and China Studies in Dutch-speaking universities, notably in Leiden (NL) and Leuven (BE) where CLLT serves as an important means to access and advance knowledge about China/Chinese as a distinct geographic, cultural and racial/ethnic entity. Like in some other European higher education, CLLT falls within the paradigm of Area Studies and the training of scientific intellectuals par excellence, with a particular perception on the function and pedagogy of (Chinese) language. Recently CLLT began to emerge as a new subject in “hogescholen”, as an extension and supplement to traditional university education and, more, as a response to the need to provide highly trained professional workers with practical skills and knowledge (notably multilingual intercultural business communication) that are relevant and applicable to contemporary socioeconomic contexts. The “applied” nature and the “bestaansrecht” (the right of existence) required of CLLT provision by educational policies and realities places CLLT in a new and challenging context. This calls for twofold re-contextualization of CLLT: on the one hand, a renewed understanding of China and Chinese in a globalizing world and, on the other hand, an up-to-date pedagogical toolkit to adjust and deliver the CLLT curriculum as applied education. Both require a paradigmatic shift in terms of the “social turn” of CLLT in which communicative skills need to be placed at the heart of its provision. We illustrate educational challenges posed by this shift in concrete ways, using our own hogeschool as an example. We reflect on the operational potentials and constraints of moving into a communication-oriented curriculum from the perspectives of the teachers and the students. In a context of applied education, both teachers and students are required to adapt to new roles in an environment where the Chinese curriculum is more and more part of a larger integrated whole of formerly parallel learning lines.
Mr. Zhenxian Wang 孔子学院在汉语教育后发国家推广汉语的策略与实践-以塞浦路斯为例
在塞浦路斯大学孔子学院成立(2014年10月)以前,塞浦路斯的汉语教学基本上是空白。所以,我们称塞浦路斯是汉语教育后发国家。本文以塞浦路斯大学孔子学院成立两年来的工作实践为素材,论述了在汉语教育后发国家推广汉语要有目标国家的政治、经济、社会和文化大局观,要以汉语学生、教师和课程为着力点,要在政府部门、学校、公司机构和媒体四个微观层面发力的策略与实践,并指出在汉语教育后发国家推广汉语的关键是既要满足各方现有的汉语学习需求,更要激发各方的潜在学习需求。
Dr. Chen Xiao Types of Errors in Acquiring Collocations by Chinese Learners in France, Causes and Teaching Strategies
Based on second language acquisition theories and an analysis of interlanguage materials found in the corpus, this paper explores the types and the causes of the errors in the students’ acquisition of collocations. Pedagogical strategies concerning the teaching of chinese collocations are thus put forward.
Dr. Cui 崔 Xiuzhong 秀仲 《波黑汉语教学现状与对策探究》
东萨拉热窝大学是波黑唯一一所开设汉语系的高校,萨拉热窝大学孔子学院是目前唯一一所在波黑成立的孔子学院。本文基于东萨拉热窝大学汉语系和萨拉热窝大学孔子学院介绍了波黑汉语教学的基本情况(包括历史演变、课程设置、教材使用、HSK考点设置、留学情况等),分析了当前波黑汉语教学中存在的主要问题,并据此提出了解决对策和发展之道:培训和派遣师资;设置合理的课程体系;加强对波黑汉语教学的研究,以期对波黑的汉语教学起到一定的促进作用。
Ms. Zhen Yang 论第二语言教学中母语与目的语的交互作用 ————以汉语“和”与英语“and”为例
本文通过分析欧洲汉语第二语言学习者习得汉语语言项目“和”以及中国英语第二语言学习者习得“and”的表现,指出在第二语言的习得过程中,母语与目的语是交互作用的。这种交互作用在第二语言与母语的不同对应关系中可演变为正迁移和负迁移,第二语言教师应在充分把握这种两语言的不同类型的情况下,充分利用母语的正迁移作用,规避负迁移。
Ms. Lin Ye Chinese and Chinese Culture
1. The importance of Chinese culture
2. Learning Chinese by learning Chinese culture
3. The targets of Zi An Chinese school
Mr. Jin'en Yu 民国时期基督徒的扫盲和现代印刷技术的发展对汉字教学的影响
民国时期基督徒在中国进行的扫盲活动探索了利用最短的事件向教民教授最基本汉字的有效途径,在字量的确定、字种的选择、教材的编辑和教学方法都有一些成功的经验。传教士在圣经及其相关材料的印刷方面为了便于高效编辑和排版印刷,在字量的确定和字种的选择方面,利用量化分析的方面,探索了一条科学途径。这些都为当今的汉语国际传播中的汉字教学提供了有效借鉴。
Dr. Lan Yue Congnition and Teaching of Measure word of Westerners in the 19th Century
Measure word is a specific part of speech in Chinese language. Back hundreds of years ago, westerners who came to China were keenly aware of the existence of measure word during the process of Chinese learning. Much intensive study in cognition and research of measure word has been launched in 19th century, which would be revealed through the emphasis of measure word in the Chinese language teaching materials. They named measure word in accordance with angles of either number or classification. Besides, more specific instructions had been made aiming at the classification and usage of measure word. Some effective methods had been adopted in the teaching and studying of measure word, which has been significant reference for teaching Chinese as a foreign language today.
Dr. Haiying Zhang 面向欧洲大学汉学专业学生的汉字教学
本文将教学对象限定为欧洲大学汉学专业学生,从教学理念、教学方法、教学素材三方面论述欧洲大学这一专业学生的汉字教学问题,该文结构及主要观点如下:
一、关于汉字繁简取舍问题
先学繁体,后学简体,兼识繁简。
二、关于汉字认读及书写是否同步的问题
认读领先,书写随后。
三、汉字教学的重要途径
3.1 字源教学便于学生理解、记忆汉字
3.2 部件教学最为重要
四、关于两套代表性教材汉字教学内容的分析
《新实用汉语课本》、《中文听说读写》
五、尊重教材,适当调整补充,找出最佳汉字教学内容和方法
5.1适当补充字源教学内容。
5.2适当采纳或调整汉字具体部件的拆分。
5.3 中高级阶段适当补充形近字、多义字、同音字等练习。
5.4开设汉字文化选修课,供学生选择。
Ms. Meilan Zhang 欧洲汉语国际教育教材的模式创新与本土融合 ——以清末民初英国汉语教科书为例
清朝政府为了政治教化需要和实际语言生活需要,先后流行了两类官方教科书:一是康熙皇帝《圣谕》十六条(1670年)—雍正万言之文言文《圣谕广训》—《圣谕广训》训读、解说的白话体文本如王又朴之《圣谕广训衍》(1726年)、佚名之《圣谕广训直解》等;二是清朝较早刊行的一部大型满汉对照双语教材《清文指要》(百篇),使通汉语而满语生疏的旗人学习满语和满汉翻译。 这两类中国本土的教科书都在清末民初欧洲汉语教科书历史上写下光辉的一页。因缺乏汉语学习教材,威妥玛之前的19 世纪的西方人,把《圣谕广训》系列当作欧洲人学习汉语的教科书内容。纯翻译的文本有:俄文译本(1788)英国传教士米怜英译了圣谕十六条、《圣谕广训》、《圣谕广训衍》(1810)、意大利人晁德莅将《圣谕广训直解》翻译成汉语与拉丁文《Cursus Litteraturae Sinicae 》(双语的);法籍耶稣会士帛黎和C. de Bussy译成法语、葡萄牙人伯多禄译成葡萄牙语, 1904年的德文译本等多种译本。
Dr. Qi Zhang The comparison of characters compiled in the Graded and EBCL through an evaluation of two textbooks for teaching CFL (Chinese as a foreign language)
The study scrutinizes the Chinese characters of two reference works which are compiled by two groups of researchers: the Grade One of the Graded is funded by the Hanban which is the Confucius Institute Headquarters in P. R. China (http://www.hanban.edu.cn/), whereas the A1 and A2of the EBCL is funded by the European Council including a number of European scholars (http://ebcl.eu.com/). Both lists consist of characters that are set be acquired by CFL beginners. These two character lists are evaluated through an examination of two textbooks. New Practical Chinese Reader (Volume 1; NPCR 1 henceforth) and A Key to Chinese Speech and Writing (Volume I; KCSW 1 henceforth). NPCR 1 is estimated to be used in approximately 2,000 universities across the world (Tinnefeld-Yeh, 2014). It is written chiefly by a team of scholars from mainland China. The other textbook, KCSW 1, has been primarily used by schools and universities in France but have been known world-wide (Jian, 2012). NPCR 1 does not put a particular focus on Chinese characters and it introduces both characters and pinyin from the beginning. In contrast, KCSW 1 employs the character-based approach to emphasize the study of Chinese characters and pinyin is not introduced until a later stage. Despite the differences, both textbooks are set for the beginning learners of CFL.

The results show that a large number of characters from A1 of EBCL are represented in KCSW and NPCR (87.5% and 65% respectively). However, only 12.6% and 25% characters from A2 are included in KCSW and NPCR respectively. Furthermore, 57% characters from A2 are even not contained in either textbook. As both textbooks are for ab initio level, this finding indicates that the EBCL character list emphasizes the development in character acquisition at different levels of language proficiency (from A1 to A2). On the other hand, because of the large number of characters in the Graded 1 (i.e. 900), nearly 59% of characters from this list are not included in KCSW. Even though KCSW adopts a character-based teaching method and consequently priorities the acquisition of characters, 51% of the Graded 1 still cannot be found in KCSW. Therefore, the Graded 1 might be further divided in order to offer a clear guidance for character learning at different levels. The comparison of these two character lists will shed lights onto the use of each list for pedagogy and teaching material development.
Dr. Minkang Zhou Chinese Language Teaching & Researching in Europe
The Chinese Language Teaching in Europe has more than one hundred years but the teaching situation is very diferente in each european country and it is interest and important to have a global view of this situation with academic and social anlysis and to do a comparative reflexion of the perspective and the developement of Chinese Language teaching in Europe.
In the Chinese teaching research field, we find that a lot of publication and articles, papers are from China mainland, Taiwan, Hongkong and how should we improve the european research of Chinese teaching. This paper will do analysis and suggestion in the Chinese teaching reseaarch field in Europe.