Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Inaugural Symposium of the European Association of Chinese Teaching

10-12 February, 2017, Budapest

ELTE Confucius Institute, 1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 4/F

Abstracts

Show all abstracts Hide all abstracts Download all listed abstracts as PDF

Ms. Ma Jing 欧洲中小学生适用的汉语教学法研究
本文介绍了在中匈双语学校任教的汉语教师情况和学生学习汉语的基本情况,以及中文教材的使用情况。并且以初、中级汉语水平的学生为教学研究对象,结合第二语言学的教学理论和教学经历,具体阐释了16种针对于欧洲中小学生适用的汉语教学方法。
随着中国经济的飞速发展,世界“汉语热”呈现出低龄化特征,针对各国中小学汉语教学法的研究也逐渐增多,但目前的研究对象大多来自亚洲。欧洲的中小学生语言环境单一、个性更为活泼好动,思维方式和学习特点都有别于亚洲学生。因此,适用于西式教育背景下的中小学生汉语教学方法,构成了国际汉语教学研究的必要性。
Dr. Liliya Kholkina Secondary school textbook of Chinese for usage outside of China
Every country has its own standards for foreign language teaching. In Russia these standards are set by Russian Federal educational standard. General State Exam (OGE) and Unified State Exam (EGE) in Chinese which are now being tested will also contribute to unification of standards and requirements to language skills of graduates.
Teaching materials play a very important role in education process. Recently, various textbooks from China became available, which provides teachers with colorful multi-media teaching materials. But most of them are designed for teaching Chinese in the Chinese language environment and usually by native speakers, and for that reason lack many necessary explanations. Even if translated to local languages, they don’t fit to local realities and don’t comply with local educational standards. Typological difference between Chinese and Indo-European languages is too big to be able to rely only on communicative methods, and some grammar points and communicative strategies have to be explicitly clarified. Moreover, learners with different mother tongues tend to have different types of difficulties when learning Chinese. We believe that to satisfy all these needs, it is necessary to develop local teaching materials in collaboration with local and Chinese specialists.
As example this paper uses a series of Chinese textbooks for 5th to 9th grade secondary school pupils that we have developed, which now is in process of accreditation by the Russian Ministry of Education. It contains a textbook, a workbook, teachers’ book with guidelines, keys and tests and electronic version for each grade. This series of textbooks introduces many facts about Russia and China in Chinese (geography, history, literature, music, cinema, national holidays etc.) and makes comparisons between Russian and Chinese culture and traditions. It effectively uses Chinese and Russian in tasks and explanations and develops communicative skills through special projects, surveys, discussions and descriptions of charts and graphs with the data suitable and interesting for the secondary school pupils. The paper focuses on the main features for a school textbook of Chinese for usage outside of China.
Ms. Krystyna Krajewska The Development of a Professional Chinese Language Education Package for Primary Schools in Wales Chinese Visual Learning (CVL) Project Case Study
The Development of a Professional Chinese Language Education Package for Primary Schools in Wales
Chinese Visual Learning (CVL) Project Case Study

Krystyna Krajewska
University of Wales Trinity Saint David
Lianyi Song
SOAS, University of London

Key words: Chinese, Visual Learning, Local Teacher Training

This paper provides a case study of the Chinese Visual Learning (CVL) project developed through the Confucius Institute at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David (UWTSD), and the use of this method in developing a TCFL teaching training program in Wales. Funded by the Chinese Government agency, Hanban, this project is composed of three stages: designing the teaching materials to meet the educational ethos of teaching and learning in Wales; training non-native, local MFL teachers to teach Chinese, and the final stage of cognitive and metalinguistic research into the CVL methodology. This project presents the opportunity to create a stable, continuous and sustainable learning environment for Chinese language acquisition in Wales starting with pupils at Key Stage 2 (KS2, years 3-4, ages around 7-9).
This conference paper focuses on the first phase of designing CVL teaching material. It includes the development of Welsh and English language versions of the teaching materials and classroom resources through collaboration with experts in Modern Foreign Languages within the home institute as well as with specialists in TCFL.
There are two parts to this paper:
• In the first section, the project leader KRAJEWSKA Krystyna (UWTSD) will introduce the initial concept and the follow the development of the CVL project in detail. The CVL approach enables learners to gain ground rapidly through the use of colour and shape coding. The case study demonstrates how the Confucius Institute at UWTSD has collaborated with UWTSD’s specialist Welsh language publisher, and specialists in TCFL across different research and academic disciplinary subjects. The experts have together contributed to the design of the CVL teaching materials with both teacher training and learners’ needs in mind.
• In the second section, Dr. SONG Lianyi (SOAS) will examine the role of CEFR in shaping the design of the syllabus and the teaching materials. This an example of best practice in co-working among experts in TCFL across the UK in order to deliver a programme of the highest standard.
Ms. Cuihua Ma 《文化教学在英国小学汉语课堂的运用与思考》
语言与文化密不可分,互相影响与依赖。汉语国际推广既是语言的推广,也是文化的推广。本文以英国南安普顿Mansbridge小学孔子课堂为例,采用观察法、案例分析法等方法,综合运用对外汉语教学、文化语言学、语言心理学、语言教育学等理论,整理和分析了文化教学在英国小学汉语课堂的运用情况;提出了文化教学在英国小学汉语课堂的运用原则及策略;与此同时本文也指出了一些文化教学运用的误区及解决方案。最后,本文指出了文化教学的运用给国际汉语教师胜任力带来的挑战。
Ms. Olga Maslovets The requirements for the modern textbook of Chinese language
Keywords: the modern textbook of Chinese language, the requirements, the levels of the textbook.
The article deals with the problem of the creation the textbook of Chinese language. The author of the article presents the requirements for the textbook for secondary school’s students and analyses them on different levels.
The author identifies several levels: methodological, the level of purpose, the level of content, the structural level, level of communicative development, the level of sociоcultural development, the level of-specific features of Chinese language.
On the methodological level the author consides different approaches and principles in teaching foreign languages.
At the level of purpose, according to the authors idea, the textbook must satisfy the requirements of the national educational standard, which includes the modern level of the requirements for language skills.
At the level of content the textbook should reflects the national objectives of teaching foreign language:
1) items of speech / issues / problems / situations of communication;
2) language and speech materials, different levels of language: phonetic, lexical, grammatical, the level of communication);
3) procedural aspectы of the learning content.
At the structural level, according to the author’s idea, the textbook should reflect its internal (conceptual) structure.
At the level of communicative development the textbook should be directed to the realization of the main purpose of teaching Chinese – the formation of foreign language communicative competence.
At the level of sociocultural development the textbook must realize the sociocultural orientation in teaching Chinese involving students in the dialogue of cultures (intercultural dialogue). At the level of-specific features of Chinese the author reviews specific features of Chinese languages, that must be represented in the different contents of the textbook.
Ms. Caitríona Osborne Preliminary Results investigating the Effectiveness of Rote Memorisation, Delayed Character Introduction, Character Colour-coding and a Mixed-methods approach when Teaching Chinese to Beginner Learner
The paper presents preliminary results of the investigation of four different methods in

introducing Chinese characters to beginner learners of Chinese as a foreign

language (CFL). Approximately 98 learners aged 14–16 participated in the research

and are divided into four groups. Three groups of participants are learning Chinese

via one of the three approaches: rote memorization (Dehn, 2008; Greenberg, 2000),

delayed character introduction (Chen, Wang & Cai, 2010; Ye, 2013) and character

colour-coding (Dummit, 2008; Pleco, 2016). The fourth group of participants is used as

a control group and has been taught with the usual mixed approach observed in five

Irish higher institutions. Two formative evaluations were conducted to analyse the

participants’ development in learning the character recall and recognition, as well as

the use of characters. Previous research (e.g. Poole & Sung, 2015; Xu, Chang, Zhang &

Perfetti, 2013; Tan, Spinks, Eden, Perfetti & Siok, 2005) in the area of CFL acquisition

tends to focus on learners’ ability to recall characters, with less emphasis on the

overall use of Chinese language. Therefore, the evaluations presented to the

participants in this study not only focused on character recall and recognition, but

also the ability to use Chinese language in communication. The evaluations consist

of sections including: (1) dictation; (2) recognising and recalling characters; (3) cloze

tests; (4) reordering sentences of a Chinese conversation and; (5) producing a text in

describing a picture. The first formative evaluation was carried out after around four

weeks’ teaching and the second one was conducted after another four weeks of

teaching. Therefore, the results reported here reflect the effectiveness of each

teaching method on the study of Chinese characters in the first eight weeks. The

study reveals that rote memorisation seems to be the most effect method in helping

CFL beginners in acquiring the individual characters, particularly the orthography of

Chinese characters, however only in the early stages of learning CFL. Character

colour-coding proved to be useful in the acquisition of character phonology and for

learning the use of characters during the study. Although delayed character

introduction was hypothesised to be effective in assisting learners to acquire the

phonology and semantics of Chinese characters, this method did not show

significant positive effects among CFL beginners in the early stage or later stage of

character learning. The control group at first showed promising signs in terms of

acquiring character use, however this did not continue over the course of the study.

As this is an ongoing one-year project and the data collection will continue until May

2017, further analyses will be conducted to scrutinise these initial findings.

Keywords: Chinese language; Chinese as a foreign language; Language pedagogy
Ms. Mary Ruane Mainstreaming Chinese in the public education secondary sector: issues and challenges
The teaching of Chinese has grown exponentially around the world in the last 20 years. Expansion has happened across all education sectors. This paper addresses one aspect of this expansion: the teaching of Chinese in secondary education. On foot of many recent initiatives around the world, it is now possible to take stock, draw inferences and look forward. Drawing on the example of one country (Ireland) and referencing work from elsewhere, the paper seeks to pinpoint some key issues to be addressed.

Evidence of effectiveness in Chinese teaching at second level shows mixed results. A general consensus is that, without a strong focus on strategic planning, successful mainstreaming and upscaling of Chinese will continue to prove challenging. While all language learning has to be planned (Lo Bianco 2016, Cummins 2014), effective Chinese language teaching requires a higher order of effort: planning cannot be left to chance or market forces.

Among a broad range of factors, some stand out as critical: the need for strategic leadership from national authorities, developing teacher capacity and much-improved coordination of research and practice.

As well as fixing high-level aspirations for the teaching of Chinese, national leaders have to implement on the ground. Increasingly crowded curricula, the place for Chinese and other languages, the role of proficiency benchmarks, time allocation policies are just some contested.
Dr. Carlotta Sparvoli Teaching in Primary School: Implementing the performative approach
This paper focuses on the presentation of a project conducted in two Primary Schools, having Irish as first language. The experimental group consists of a group of 65 learners attending the 5th and 6th classes (age 11/12). We are implementing a performative pedagogy (Schewe 2007), relying mainly on oral input, with a very reduced support of pinyin (to be conducted only in the last 20 hours of the project). At shis stage, we will present the results of our first tests on tone acquisition and segmental accuracy (both in perception and production). The problem we are addressing is related to the issues involved in teaching Chinese to Irish English bilingual learners in the first stages of their literacy education, when they are decoding skills in two languages in parallel. “Despite its greater regularity, Irish spelling is sufficiently complex and distinct from English to challenge learners” (Stenson 2016) therefore, in such scenario, presenting pinyin transcription might increase the decoding difficulties. Moreover, in a context where the syllabus already includes one or two EU Second Languages, Chinese teaching must be presented as a ludic performative moment so as not to overrburden pupils with a fourth language class. Despite this limitations, we are pursuing a measurable objective (HSK1) after 50 hours of training, where only the last 20 hours will be devoted to pinyin literacy and we intend to provide learners with rigorous basis for long term language acquisition. To this end, (I) a significant part of the curriculum is planned for helping students to become phonologically aware (becoming familiar with the segmental and supra segmental features so that they might grasp Chinese phonetic structure). (ii) Tones are presented accompanying the input with codified gestures, emphasizing each tonal contour, starting from the most basic tonal contrasts, as Low + High T3+T1, Falling + Rising T4+T1 (Cao 2000). This approach implies (iii) a multichannel pedagogy, based on the input+i model (Krashen 1982), always conducting in the target language and strongly relying on body language. (iv) The activity are planned so that students are not simply “understanding the input” by the teacher, but rather “enact” the language therefore producing immediately an output, according to the total physical response method (Asher 1977). In order to fill in the gap of written material, (v) the relevant content are presented also in the forms of memorized chunks, through songs and riddles including only the relevant lexicon and organized so as to let the learners notice the relevant syntactic structure. (vi) The introduction to the Chinese writing system is proposed under the form of task-based activities for reinforcing phonetic accuracy, where learners are invited to spell-out the strokes composing the most common radicals.
Ms. Lik Suen Chinese Teaching and Learning in the UK schools
英国文化协会和汉办是英国中小学汉语教学的主要推手。遍地开花的孔子学院为中文走进中小学课堂提供了可能的教师与资源。
本文将详细介绍英国中小学汉语教学的特点,主要教学模式, 存在的问题,发展的需求以及面临的挑战。
Ms. Palizhati Sulaiman 浅谈想想教学方式与汉子掌握之间的关系
法国中学汉语教学经验总结
Mr. Yongbin Xia 爱尔兰中小学汉语教学调查报告
爱尔兰科克大学孔子学院现有100多个中小学汉语教学点,每年涉及学员数在7000人以上,80%以上是中学高一年级的学生;汉语目前还只是爱尔兰中学初中阶段的短期课程之一,但不是初中毕业或高中毕业必修课。从2013年开始每年发出学生调查问卷近1000多份,回收至少600份。随着调查问卷的数据不断积累和分析,从调查问卷中可以发现爱尔兰中小学教学的特点,每年也从教师的角度出发进行调查,从中发现教学管理规律,为进一步实施更合理的教学项目和采用何种教学方法提供必要的参考,也为能将汉语纳入爱尔兰教育系统做前期准备工作。
Dr. George Zhang What is more effective in introducing Chinese characters to CFL beginners? A study of rote memorisation, delayed character introduction and character colour-coding
This is a co-authored paper and Caitríona Osborne will be the one to present.
The paper presents results of the investigation of four different methods in introducing Chinese characters to beginner learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). Approximately 98 learners aged 14–16 participated in the research and are divided into four groups. Three groups of participants are learning Chinese via one of the three approaches: rote memorization (Dehn, 2008; Greenberg, 2000), delayed character introduction (Chen, Wang & Cai, 2010; Ye, 2013) and character colour-coding (Dummit, 2008; Pleco, 2016). The fourth group of participants is used as a control group and has been taught with the usual mixed approach observed in five Irish higher institutions. Two formative evaluations were conducted to analyse the participants’ development in learning the character recall and recognition, as well as the use of characters. Previous research (e.g. Poole & Sung, 2015; Xu, Chang, Zhang & Perfetti, 2013; Tan, Spinks, Eden, Perfetti & Siok, 2005) in the area of CFL acquisition tends to focus on learners’ ability to recall characters, with less emphasis on the overall use of Chinese language. Therefore, the evaluations presented to the participants in this study not only focused on character recall and recognition, but also the ability to use Chinese language in communication. The evaluations consist of sections including: (1) dictation; (2) recognising and recalling characters; (3) cloze tests; (4) reordering sentences of a Chinese conversation and; (5) producing a text in describing a picture. The first formative evaluation was carried out after around four weeks’ teaching and the second one was conducted after another four weeks of teaching. Therefore, the results reported here reflect the effectiveness of each teaching method on the study of Chinese characters in the first eight weeks. The study reveals that rote memorisation seems to be the most effect method in helping CFL beginners in acquiring the individual characters, particularly the orthography of Chinese characters, however only in the early stages of learning CFL. Character colour-coding proved to be useful in the acquisition of character phonology and for learning the use of characters during the study. Although delayed character introduction was hypothesised to be effective in assisting learners to acquire the phonology and semantics of Chinese characters, this method did not show significant positive effects among CFL beginners in the early stage or later stage of character learning. The control group at first showed promising signs in terms of acquiring character use, however this did not continue over the course of the study. As this is an ongoing one-year project and the data collection will continue until May 2017, further analyses will be conducted to scrutinise these initial findings.
Keywords: Chinese language; Chinese as a foreign language; Language pedagogy
Ms. Siyu Zhang 基于学习策略的英国中学汉语教材练习分析 ——以GCSE教材为例
GCSE是衡量英国中学生学习水平的重要评测体系,汉语教学在英国的发展,使得GCSE汉语考试人数不断增加。目前英国较广泛使用的GCSE教学用书有两套:《快乐汉语》系列教材及Edexcel考试委员会推出的系列教材(其中包括《进步》1、2两册和《Edexcel GCSE Chinese》)。
两套教材都是针对英国本土低龄学习者编写的成果,教材各环节的编写都能体现本土教学和低龄学习的特色,但二者在教材体例、练习编写等方面又体现出不同的编写理念。教材练习对学习者语言技能的发展和巩固起到关键作用。本研究从语言学习策略出发,分析两套教材的练习部分。通过考察两套教材练习的类型、数量及编排等问题,结合实例与数据分析,试图探究 教材的训练意图及其对英国本土教学环境下中学生汉语学习策略使用的影响,为GCSE改革后的英国中学汉语教材编写提供参考。